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Three-Dimensional Modelling of Heterogeneous Coastal Aquifer: Upscaling from Local Scale

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru 560 012, India
2
Associate faculty, ICWaR, RBCCPS and IFCWS, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru 560 012, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(3), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030421
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 5 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 27 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heterogeneous Aquifer Modeling: Closing the Gap)
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Abstract

The aquifer heterogeneity is often simplified while conceptualizing numerical model due to lack of field data. Conducting field measurements to estimate all the parameters at the aquifer scale may not be feasible. Therefore, it is essential to determine the most significant parameters which require field characterization. For this purpose, the sensitivity analysis is performed on aquifer parameters, viz., anisotropic hydraulic conductivity, effective porosity and longitudinal dispersivity. The results of the sensitivity index and root mean square deviation indicated, that the longitudinal dispersivity and anisotropic hydraulic conductivity are the sensitive aquifer parameters to evaluate seawater intrusion in the study area. The sensitive parameters are further characterized at discrete points or at local scale by using regression analysis. The longitudinal dispersivity is estimated at discrete well points based on Xu and Eckstein regression formula. The anisotropic hydraulic conductivity is estimated based on established regression relationship between hydraulic conductivity and electrical resistivity with R2 of 0.924. The estimated hydraulic conductivity in x and y-direction are upscaled by considering the heterogeneous medium as statistically homogeneous at each layer. The upscaled model output is compared with the transversely isotropic model output. The bias error and root mean square error indicated that the upscaled model performed better than the transversely isotropic model. Thus, this investigation demonstrates the necessity of considering spatial heterogeneous parameters for effective modelling of the seawater intrusion in a layered coastal aquifer. View Full-Text
Keywords: heterogeneity; longitudinal dispersivity; anisotropic hydraulic conductivity; intrinsic upscaling; numerical modelling heterogeneity; longitudinal dispersivity; anisotropic hydraulic conductivity; intrinsic upscaling; numerical modelling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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B.N., P.; Mohan Kumar, M. Three-Dimensional Modelling of Heterogeneous Coastal Aquifer: Upscaling from Local Scale. Water 2019, 11, 421.

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