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Water 2019, 11(2), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020328

Debris Flow Damage Assessment by Considering Debris Flow Direction and Direction Angle of Structure in South Korea

1
Department of Urban Environmental & Disaster Management School of Disaster Prevention, Kangwon National University, 346 Jungang-ro, Samcheok-si 25913, Korea
2
Forest Engineering Research Institute, National Forestry Cooperative Federation, 1800 Dongseo-daero Daedeok-gu, Daejeon 34417, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 January 2019 / Revised: 9 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Landslide Risk Based on Rainfall)
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Abstract

Recently, human and property damages have often occurred due to various reasons—such as landslides, debris flow, and other sediment-related disasters—which are also caused by regional torrential rain resulting from climate change and reckless development of mountainous areas. Debris flows mainly occur in mountainous areas near urban living communities and often cause direct damages. In general, debris flows containing soil, rock fragments, and driftwood temporarily travel down to lower parts along with a mountain torrent. However, debris flows are also often reported to stream down from the point where a slope failure or a landslide occurs in a mountain directly to its lower parts. The impact of those debris flows is one of the main factors that cause serious damage to structures. To mitigate such damage of debris flows, a quantitative assessment of the impact force is thus required. Moreover, technologies to evaluate disaster prevention facilities and structures at disaster-prone regions are needed. This study developed two models to quantitatively analyze the damages caused by debris flows on structures: Type-1 model for calculating the impact force, which reflected the flow characteristics of debris flows and the Type-2 model, which calculated the impact force based on the topographical characteristics of mountainous regions. Using RAMMS a debris flow runoff model, the impact forces assessed through Type-1 and Type-2 models were compared to check reliability. Using the assessed impact forces, the damage ratio of the structures was calculated and the amount of damage caused by debris flows on the structures was ultimately assessed. The results showed that the Type-1 model overestimated the impact force by 10% and the Type-2 model by 4% for Mt. Umyeon in Seoul, compared to the RAMMS model. In addition, the Type-1 model overestimated the impact force by 3% and Type-2 by 2% for Mt. Majeok in Chuncheon, South Korea. View Full-Text
Keywords: debris flow; impact force; RAMMS; damage ratio debris flow; impact force; RAMMS; damage ratio
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Nam, D.H.; Kim, M.-I.; Kang, D.H.; Kim, B.S. Debris Flow Damage Assessment by Considering Debris Flow Direction and Direction Angle of Structure in South Korea. Water 2019, 11, 328.

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