Next Article in Journal
Halloysite Nanotubes as Adsorptive Material for Phosphate Removal from Aqueous Solution
Next Article in Special Issue
Water and Sewage Management Issues in Rural Poland
Previous Article in Journal
Performance of A Two-Dimensional Hydraulic Model for the Evaluation of Stranding Areas and Characterization of Rapid Fluctuations in Hydropeaking Rivers
Previous Article in Special Issue
Estimation of River Management Flow Considering Stream Water Deficit Characteristics
Open AccessArticle

Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Water Access in Rural Areas of Low and Middle Income Countries

1
Generalitat de Catalunya, Catalonia Trade and Investment Washington DC, Washington, DC 20001, USA
2
Research Group of “Economia Aplicada” (GEAP), Institut d’Economia de Barcelona (IEB), Departament d’Economia Aplicada, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
3
Departament d’Economia i d’Història Econòmica, Unitat de Fonaments de l’Anàlisi Econòmica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(2), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020202
Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 20 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
Worldwide, 844 million people still lack access to basic drinking water, especially in the rural areas of low and middle income countries. However, considerable progress has been made in recent years due to work on the Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals. Nevertheless, countries’ national characteristics have often impacted on this progress. This paper analyzes whether specific socioeconomic factors affect access to improved water sources in the rural areas of developing countries. In particular, we analyze access to ‘total improved’, piped on premises, as well as other improved sources of access in rural areas for low income, low-middle income, and high-middle income countries. Our results suggest that gross national income (GNI); female primary completion rate; agriculture; growth of rural population; and governance indicators, such as political stability, control of corruption, or regulatory quality are variables related to water access, although specific associations depend on the source of water and income group examined. Understanding these interrelations could be of great importance for decision makers in the water sector as well as for future research on this topic. View Full-Text
Keywords: water access; developing countries; rural areas; piped water; gender; governance indicators water access; developing countries; rural areas; piped water; gender; governance indicators
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Gomez, M.; Perdiguero, J.; Sanz, A. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Water Access in Rural Areas of Low and Middle Income Countries. Water 2019, 11, 202.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop