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Numerical Simulations of Non-Breaking, Breaking and Broken Wave Interaction with Emerged Vegetation Using Navier-Stokes Equations

School of Civil Engineering and Transportation, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China
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Water 2019, 11(12), 2561; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122561
Received: 22 October 2019 / Revised: 27 November 2019 / Accepted: 3 December 2019 / Published: 4 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Ocean and Coastal Waves)
Coastal plants can significantly dissipate water wave energy and services as a part of shoreline protection. Using plants as a natural buffer from wave impacts remains an attractive possibility. In this paper, we present a numerical investigation on the effects of the emerged vegetation on non-breaking, breaking and broken wave propagation through vegetation over flat and sloping beds using the Reynolds-average Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations coupled with a volume of fluid (VOF) surface capturing method. The multiphase two-equation k-ω SST turbulence model is adopted to simulate wave breaking and takes into account the effects enhanced by vegetation. The numerical model is validated with existing data from several laboratory experiments. The sensitivities of wave height evolution due to wave conditions and vegetation characteristics with variable bathymetry have been investigated. The results show good agreement with measured data. For non-breaking waves, the wave reflection due to the vegetation can increase wave height in front of the vegetation. For breaking waves, it is shown that the wave breaking behavior can be different when the vegetation is in the surf zone. The wave breaking point is slightly earlier and the wave height at the breaking point is smaller with the vegetation. For broken waves, the vegetation has little effect on the wave height before the breaking point. Meanwhile, the inertia force is important within denser vegetation and is intended to decrease the wave damping of the vegetation. Overall, the present model has good performance in simulating non-breaking, breaking and broken wave interaction with the emerged vegetation and can achieve a better understanding of wave propagation over the emerged vegetation.
Keywords: wave attenuation; vegetation; numerical model; OpenFOAM; Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations wave attenuation; vegetation; numerical model; OpenFOAM; Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations
MDPI and ACS Style

Zou, X.; Zhu, L.; Zhao, J. Numerical Simulations of Non-Breaking, Breaking and Broken Wave Interaction with Emerged Vegetation Using Navier-Stokes Equations. Water 2019, 11, 2561.

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