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Open AccessArticle

Dose-Dependent Phytotoxicity of Pesticides in Simulated Nursery Runoff on Landscape Nursery Plants

Department of Horticulture, Michigan State University, 1066 Bogue Street, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
Hampton Roads Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Virginia Tech University, 1444 Diamond Springs Road Virginia Beach, VA 23455, USA
Department of Forestry, Michigan State University, 480 Wilson Road, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(11), 2354;
Received: 4 October 2019 / Revised: 4 November 2019 / Accepted: 6 November 2019 / Published: 9 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Irrigation and Water Resources Management of Landscape Plants)
Managers of ornamental nurseries are increasingly reusing runoff water as an irrigation source, but residual pesticides in recycled water may result in plant phytotoxicity on crop plants. Our study focused on understanding the responses of container-grown landscape plants to residual pesticides in irrigation water. Hydrangea paniculata ‘Limelight’, Cornus obliqua ‘Powell garden’, and Hosta ‘Gold standard’ were exposed to various concentrations of isoxaben, chlorpyrifos, and oxyfluorfen (0, 0.15, 0.35, 0.7, and 1.4 mg/L of isoxaben; 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/L of chlorpyrifos; and 0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.015, and 0.02 mg/L of oxyfluorfen) applied as overhead irrigation. After three months of application, we assessed the dry weight biomass, growth, and parameters related to photosynthetic physiology (SPAD chlorophyll index, light-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosynthesis carbon dioxide response (A/Ci) curves. We also sampled plant leaf, stem, and root tissues for residual pesticides. The effects of the pesticides were pesticide-specific and taxa-specific. Exposure to oxyfluorfen resulted in visible injury in all three taxa and reduced total biomass, chlorophyll index, and photosynthesis in Hydrangea and Hosta. All three taxa absorbed and retained pesticides in leaf and stem tissues. Growers should follow best management practices to reduce exposure from irrigation with runoff, particularly for herbicides with post-emergent activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: nursery runoff; isoxaben; oxyfluorfen; chlorpyrifos; photosynthesis; A/Ci curve nursery runoff; isoxaben; oxyfluorfen; chlorpyrifos; photosynthesis; A/Ci curve
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Poudyal, S.; Fernandez, R.T.; Owen, J.; Cregg, B. Dose-Dependent Phytotoxicity of Pesticides in Simulated Nursery Runoff on Landscape Nursery Plants. Water 2019, 11, 2354.

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