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The Stable Isotopic Composition of Different Water Bodies at the Soil–Plant–Atmosphere Continuum (SPAC) of the Western Loess Plateau, China

Validation of Cryogenic Vacuum Extraction of Pore Water from Volcanic Soils for Isotopic Analysis

Centro de Recursos Hídricos para la Agricultura y la Minería, CONICYT/FONDAP 15130015, Chillán 3812120, Chile
Department of Water Resources, Laboratory of Comparative Policy in Water Resources Management, Universidad de Concepción, Chillán 3812120, Chile
Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco 4780000, Chile
Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, CONICYT/FONDAP 15110009, Concepción 4070386, Chile
Centro de Investigación en Sustentabilidad y Gestión Estratégica de Recursos, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago 7610658, Chile
Department of Oceanography, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción 4070386, Chile
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(11), 2214;
Received: 10 September 2019 / Revised: 15 October 2019 / Accepted: 22 October 2019 / Published: 24 October 2019
Andean headwater catchments are key components of the hydrological cycle, given that they capture moisture, store water and release it for Chilean cities, industry, agriculture, and cities in Chile. However, knowledge about within-Andean catchment processes is far from clear. Most soils in the Andes derive from volcanic ash Andosols and Arenosols presenting high organic matter, high-water retention capacity and fine pores; and are very dry during summer. Despite their importance, there is little research on the hillslope hydrology of Andosols. Environmental isotopes such as Deuterium and 18-O are direct tracers for water and useful on analyzing water-soil interactions. This work explores, for the first time, the efficiency of cryogenic vacuum extraction to remove water from two contrasting soil types (Arenosols, Andosols) at five soil water retention energies (from −1500 to −33 kPa). Two experiments were carried out to analyse the impact of extraction time, and initial water content on the amount of extracted water, while a third experiment tested whether the cryogenic vacuum extraction changed the isotopic ratios after extraction. Minimum extraction times to recover over 90% of water initially in the soil samples were 40–50 min and varied with soil texture. Minimum volume for very dry soils were 0.2 mL (loamy sand) and 1 mL (loam). After extraction, the difference between the isotope standard and the isotopic values after extraction was acceptable. Thus, we recommend this procedure for soils derived from volcanic ashes. View Full-Text
Keywords: cryogenic vacuum extraction; volcanic soils; isotopic analysis cryogenic vacuum extraction; volcanic soils; isotopic analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rivera, D.; Gutierrez, K.; Valdivia-Cea, W.; Zambrano-Bigiarini, M.; Godoy-Faúndez, A.; Álvez, A.; Farías, L. Validation of Cryogenic Vacuum Extraction of Pore Water from Volcanic Soils for Isotopic Analysis. Water 2019, 11, 2214.

AMA Style

Rivera D, Gutierrez K, Valdivia-Cea W, Zambrano-Bigiarini M, Godoy-Faúndez A, Álvez A, Farías L. Validation of Cryogenic Vacuum Extraction of Pore Water from Volcanic Soils for Isotopic Analysis. Water. 2019; 11(11):2214.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rivera, Diego, Karen Gutierrez, Walter Valdivia-Cea, Mauricio Zambrano-Bigiarini, Alex Godoy-Faúndez, Amaya Álvez, and Laura Farías. 2019. "Validation of Cryogenic Vacuum Extraction of Pore Water from Volcanic Soils for Isotopic Analysis" Water 11, no. 11: 2214.

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