Next Article in Journal
Integrated Water Quality Governance and Sectoral Responsibility: The EU Water Framework Directive’s Impact on Agricultural Sector Policies in Norway
Next Article in Special Issue
Use of 222Rn and δ18O-δ2H Isotopes in Detecting the Origin of Water and in Quantifying Groundwater Inflow Rates in an Alarmingly Growing Lake, Ethiopia
Previous Article in Journal
Subirrigation of Container-Grown Tomato II: Physical and Chemical Properties of the Growing Medium
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Stable Isotopic Composition of Different Water Bodies at the Soil–Plant–Atmosphere Continuum (SPAC) of the Western Loess Plateau, China
Article

Validation of Cryogenic Vacuum Extraction of Pore Water from Volcanic Soils for Isotopic Analysis

1
Centro de Recursos Hídricos para la Agricultura y la Minería, CONICYT/FONDAP 15130015, Chillán 3812120, Chile
2
Department of Water Resources, Laboratory of Comparative Policy in Water Resources Management, Universidad de Concepción, Chillán 3812120, Chile
3
Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco 4780000, Chile
4
Center for Climate and Resilience Research (CR)2, CONICYT/FONDAP 15110009, Concepción 4070386, Chile
5
Centro de Investigación en Sustentabilidad y Gestión Estratégica de Recursos, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago 7610658, Chile
6
Department of Oceanography, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción 4070386, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(11), 2214; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112214
Received: 10 September 2019 / Revised: 15 October 2019 / Accepted: 22 October 2019 / Published: 24 October 2019
Andean headwater catchments are key components of the hydrological cycle, given that they capture moisture, store water and release it for Chilean cities, industry, agriculture, and cities in Chile. However, knowledge about within-Andean catchment processes is far from clear. Most soils in the Andes derive from volcanic ash Andosols and Arenosols presenting high organic matter, high-water retention capacity and fine pores; and are very dry during summer. Despite their importance, there is little research on the hillslope hydrology of Andosols. Environmental isotopes such as Deuterium and 18-O are direct tracers for water and useful on analyzing water-soil interactions. This work explores, for the first time, the efficiency of cryogenic vacuum extraction to remove water from two contrasting soil types (Arenosols, Andosols) at five soil water retention energies (from −1500 to −33 kPa). Two experiments were carried out to analyse the impact of extraction time, and initial water content on the amount of extracted water, while a third experiment tested whether the cryogenic vacuum extraction changed the isotopic ratios after extraction. Minimum extraction times to recover over 90% of water initially in the soil samples were 40–50 min and varied with soil texture. Minimum volume for very dry soils were 0.2 mL (loamy sand) and 1 mL (loam). After extraction, the difference between the isotope standard and the isotopic values after extraction was acceptable. Thus, we recommend this procedure for soils derived from volcanic ashes. View Full-Text
Keywords: cryogenic vacuum extraction; volcanic soils; isotopic analysis cryogenic vacuum extraction; volcanic soils; isotopic analysis
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Rivera, D.; Gutierrez, K.; Valdivia-Cea, W.; Zambrano-Bigiarini, M.; Godoy-Faúndez, A.; Álvez, A.; Farías, L. Validation of Cryogenic Vacuum Extraction of Pore Water from Volcanic Soils for Isotopic Analysis. Water 2019, 11, 2214. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112214

AMA Style

Rivera D, Gutierrez K, Valdivia-Cea W, Zambrano-Bigiarini M, Godoy-Faúndez A, Álvez A, Farías L. Validation of Cryogenic Vacuum Extraction of Pore Water from Volcanic Soils for Isotopic Analysis. Water. 2019; 11(11):2214. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112214

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rivera, Diego, Karen Gutierrez, Walter Valdivia-Cea, Mauricio Zambrano-Bigiarini, Alex Godoy-Faúndez, Amaya Álvez, and Laura Farías. 2019. "Validation of Cryogenic Vacuum Extraction of Pore Water from Volcanic Soils for Isotopic Analysis" Water 11, no. 11: 2214. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112214

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop