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Open AccessArticle

Understanding Groundwater Mineralization Changes of a Belgian Chalky Aquifer in the Presence of 1,1,1-Trichloroethane Degradation Reactions

1
Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology, Urban and Environmental Engineering, University of Liège, Sart Tilman B52, 4000 Liège, Belgium
2
AECOM, Maria-Theresiastraat 34 A, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(10), 2009; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102009
Received: 22 August 2019 / Revised: 5 September 2019 / Accepted: 23 September 2019 / Published: 27 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Hydrogeology Studies)
An abandoned industrial site in Belgium, located in the catchment of a chalk aquifer mainly used for drinking water, has been investigated for groundwater pollution due to a mixture of chlorinated solvents with mainly 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) at high concentrations. The observed elevated groundwater mineralization was partly explained by chemical reactions associated with hydrolysis and dehydrohalogenation (HY/DH) of 1,1,1-TCA in the chalky aquifer. Leaching of soluble compounds from a backfilled layer located in the site could also have influenced the groundwater composition. In this context, the objective of this study was to investigate the hydrochemical processes controlling groundwater mineralization through a characterization of the backfill and groundwater chemical composition. This is essential in the context of required site remediation to define appropriate remediation measures to soil and groundwater. Groundwater samples were collected for chemical analyses of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, major ions, and several minor ones. X-Ray Diffraction Analysis (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and a leaching test according to CEN/TS 14405 norm were carried out on the backfill soil. δ34S and δ18O of sulphate in groundwater and in the backfill eluates were also compared. Both effects influencing the groundwater hydrochemistry around the site were clarified. First, calcite dissolution under the 1,1,1-TCA degradation reactions results in a water mineralization increase. It was assessed by geochemical batch simulations based on observed data. Second, sulphate and calcium released from the backfill have reached the groundwater. The leaching test provided an estimation of the minimal released quantities. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrochemistry; chalk aquifer; 1,1,1-trichloroethane; degradation; sulphate; backfill; leaching test hydrochemistry; chalk aquifer; 1,1,1-trichloroethane; degradation; sulphate; backfill; leaching test
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MDPI and ACS Style

Boudjana, Y.; Brouyère, S.; Jamin, P.; Orban, P.; Gasparella, D.; Dassargues, A. Understanding Groundwater Mineralization Changes of a Belgian Chalky Aquifer in the Presence of 1,1,1-Trichloroethane Degradation Reactions. Water 2019, 11, 2009. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102009

AMA Style

Boudjana Y, Brouyère S, Jamin P, Orban P, Gasparella D, Dassargues A. Understanding Groundwater Mineralization Changes of a Belgian Chalky Aquifer in the Presence of 1,1,1-Trichloroethane Degradation Reactions. Water. 2019; 11(10):2009. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102009

Chicago/Turabian Style

Boudjana, Youcef; Brouyère, Serge; Jamin, Pierre; Orban, Philippe; Gasparella, Davide; Dassargues, Alain. 2019. "Understanding Groundwater Mineralization Changes of a Belgian Chalky Aquifer in the Presence of 1,1,1-Trichloroethane Degradation Reactions" Water 11, no. 10: 2009. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102009

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