Next Article in Journal
Relationship between Soil Salinization and Groundwater Hydration in Yaoba Oasis, Northwest China
Previous Article in Journal
The Impact of Recreational Activities on Aquatic Vegetation in Alpine Lakes
Previous Article in Special Issue
Interpreting Farmers’ Perceptions of Risks and Benefits Concerning Wastewater Reuse for Irrigation: A Case Study in Emilia-Romagna (Italy)
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Demand for Stream Mitigation in Colorado, USA

Department of Geography, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666-4684, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(1), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010174
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Water Policy Collection)
  |  
PDF [7697 KB, uploaded 22 January 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

Colorado, the headwaters for much of the United States, is one of the fastest growing states in terms of both population and land development. These land use changes are impacting jurisdictional streams, and thus require compensatory stream mitigation via environmental restoration. In this article, we first characterize current demand and supply for stream mitigation for the entire state of Colorado. Second, we assess future demand by forecasting and mapping the lengths of streams that will likely be impacted by specific development and land use changes. Third, based on our interviews with experts, stakeholders, resource managers, and regulators, we provide insight on how regulatory climate, challenges, and water resource developments may influence demand for stream mitigation. From geospatial analyses of permit data, we found that there is currently demand for compensatory stream mitigation in 13 of the 89 HUC-8 watersheds across Colorado. Permanent riverine impacts from 2012–2017 requiring compensatory mitigation totaled 38,292 linear feet (LF). The supply of stream mitigation credits falls well short of this demand. There has only been one approved stream mitigation bank in Colorado, supplying only 2539 LF credits. Based on our analyses of future growth and development in Colorado, there will be relatively high demand for stream mitigation credits in the next 5–10 years. While most of these impacts will be around the Denver metropolitan area, we identified some new areas of the state that will experience high demand for stream mitigation. Given regulatory agencies’ stated preference for mitigation banks, the high demand for stream mitigation credits, and the short supply of stream credits, there should be an active market for stream mitigation banks in Colorado. However, there are some key obstacles preventing this market from moving forward, with permanent water rights’ acquisitions at the top of the list. Ensuring stream mitigation compliance is essential for restoring and maintaining the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of stream systems in Colorado and beyond. View Full-Text
Keywords: water resources management; river water quality; stream restoration; Clean Water Act; Clean Water Rule; environmental compliance water resources management; river water quality; stream restoration; Clean Water Act; Clean Water Rule; environmental compliance
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Julian, J.P.; Weaver, R.C. Demand for Stream Mitigation in Colorado, USA. Water 2019, 11, 174.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top