Next Article in Journal
Impact of Rain Gauges Distribution on the Runoff Simulation of a Small Mountain Catchment in Southern Ecuador
Previous Article in Journal
Water Footprint Accounting Along the Wheat-Bread Value Chain: Implications for Sustainable and Productive Water Use Benchmarks
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2018, 10(9), 1168;

Evolution of Crop Water Productivity in the Nile Delta over Three Decades (1985–2015)

Soils, Water & Environment Research Institute, Agricultural Research Centre, Giza 12112, Egypt
Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagazig, Zagazig 44511, Egypt
International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Cairo 2416, Egypt
Irrigation and Hydraulics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 May 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Water Use and Scarcity)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3196 KB, uploaded 31 August 2018]   |  


Estimating crop water productivity (CWP) for spatially variable climatic conditions in Egypt is important for the redistribution of crop planting to optimize production per unit of water consumed. The current paper aims to estimate maximum CWP trends under conditions of the Northern Nile Delta over three decades to choose crops that exhibit a higher productivity per unit of water and positive trends in the CWP. The Kafr El Sheikh Governorate was selected to represent the Northern Nile Delta Region, and mean monthly weather data for the period of 1985 to 2015 were collected to calculate standardized reference evapotranspiration and crop water use for a wide array of crops grown in the region using the CROPWAT8.0 model. The CWP was then calculated by dividing crop yield by seasonal water consumption. The CWP data range from 0.69 to 13.79 kg·m−3 for winter field crops, 3.40 to 10.69 kg·m−3 for winter vegetables, 0.29 to 6.04 kg·m−3 for summer field crops, 2.38 to 7.65 kg·m−3 for summer vegetables, 1.00 to 5.38 kg·m−3 for nili season crops (short-season post summer), and 0.66 to 3.35 kg·m−3 for orchards. The crops with the highest CWP values (kg·m−3) over three decades in descending order are: sugar beet (13.79), potato (w2) (10.69), tomato (w) (10.58), eggplant (w) (10.05), potato (w1) (9.98), cucumber (w) (9.81), and cabbage (w) (9.59). There was an increase in CWP of 41% from the first to the second and 22% from the second to the third decade. The CWP increase is attributed to a small decrease in water consumption and to a considerable increase in crop yield. The yield increases are attributed mainly to the planting of higher yielding varieties and/or the application of better agronomic practices. View Full-Text
Keywords: CROPWAT8.0; crop yield; evapotranspiration; crop pattern planning; irrigation; climate CROPWAT8.0; crop yield; evapotranspiration; crop pattern planning; irrigation; climate

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

M. El-Marsafawy, S.; Swelam, A.; Ghanem, A. Evolution of Crop Water Productivity in the Nile Delta over Three Decades (1985–2015). Water 2018, 10, 1168.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top