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Water 2018, 10(9), 1166; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091166

Experimental Investigations of Interactions between Sand Wave Movements, Flow Structure, and Individual Aquatic Plants in Natural Rivers: A Case Study of Potamogeton Pectinatus L.

1
Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Księcia Janusza 64, 01-452 Warsaw, Poland
2
Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Pawińskiego 5a, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 August 2018 / Revised: 25 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water-Worked Bedload: Hydrodynamic and Mass Transport)
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Abstract

Long-duration measurements were performed in two sandy bed rivers, and three-dimensional (3D) flow velocity and bottom elevation changes were measured in a vegetated area and in a clear region of a river. Detailed flow velocity profiles downstream and upstream of a single specimen of Potamogeton pectinatus L. were obtained and the bed morphology was assessed. Potamogeton plants gathered from each river were subjected to tensile and bending tests. The results show that the existence of the plants was influenced by both bottom and flow conditions, as the plants were located where water velocity was lower by 12% to 16% in comparison to clear region. The characteristics of the flow and sand forms depended on the cross-sectional arrangement of the river, e.g., dunes were approximately four times higher in the middle of the river than in vegetated regions near the bank. Furthermore, the studied hydrophytes were too sparse to affect water flow and had no discernible impact on the sand forms’ movements. The turbulent kinetic energy downstream of a single plant was reduced by approximately 25%. Additionally, the plants’ biomechanical characteristics and morphology were found to have adjusted to match the river conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquatic plants; flow velocity measurements; river morphology; acoustic Doppler velocimeter; natural sandy bed river; sand waves; turbulent kinetic energy; aquatic plant biomechanics aquatic plants; flow velocity measurements; river morphology; acoustic Doppler velocimeter; natural sandy bed river; sand waves; turbulent kinetic energy; aquatic plant biomechanics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Przyborowski, Ł.; Łoboda, A.M.; Bialik, R.J. Experimental Investigations of Interactions between Sand Wave Movements, Flow Structure, and Individual Aquatic Plants in Natural Rivers: A Case Study of Potamogeton Pectinatus L.. Water 2018, 10, 1166.

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