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Open AccessArticle

New Insights on Land Surface-Atmosphere Feedbacks over Tropical South America at Interannual Timescales

1
Departamento de Geociencias y Ambiente, Facultad de Minas, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín, Medellín, 050041, Colombia
2
Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Regina, Regina, SK S4S0A2, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(8), 1095; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10081095
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
We present a simplified overview of land-atmosphere feedbacks at interannual timescales over tropical South America as structural sets of linkages among surface air temperature (T), specific humidity at 925 hPa (q925), volumetric soil water content (Θ), precipitation (P), and evaporation (E), at monthly scale during 1979–2010. Applying a Maximum Covariance Analysis (MCA), we identify the modes of greatest interannual covariability in the datasets. Time series extracted from the MCAs were used to quantify linear and non-linear metrics at up to six-month lags to establish connections among variables. All sets of metrics were summarized as graphs (Graph Theory) grouped according to their highest ENSO-degree association. The core of ENSO-activated interactions is located in the Amazon River basin and in the Magdalena-Cauca River basin in Colombia. Within the identified multivariate structure, Θ enhances the interannual connectivity since it often exhibits two-way feedbacks with the whole set of variables. That is, Θ is a key variable in defining the spatiotemporal patterns of P and E at interannual time-scales. For both the simultaneous and lagged analysis, T activates non-linear associations with q925 and Θ. Under the ENSO influence, T is a key variable to diagnose the dynamics of interannual feedbacks of the lower troposphere and soil interfaces over tropical South America. ENSO increases the interannual connectivity and memory of the feedback mechanisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil moisture; feedbacks; tropical South America; interannual variability soil moisture; feedbacks; tropical South America; interannual variability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bedoya-Soto, J.M.; Poveda, G.; Sauchyn, D. New Insights on Land Surface-Atmosphere Feedbacks over Tropical South America at Interannual Timescales. Water 2018, 10, 1095.

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