Anthropogenic disturbances have a negative impact on lake ecosystems, such as water environmental degradation. Bacterioplankton communities are essential components in lakes and consist of a few abundant species and several rare taxa. However, little is known about the community diversity and composition of abundant and rare bacterioplankton subjected to different levels of anthropogenic disturbances. In this study, water samples were collected from twelve freshwater lakes located around the city of Nanjing, China. Both Illumina MiSeq sequencing and multivariate statistical analysis were employed to determine the bacterioplankton community composition and its relation to environmental variables. The results indicated that tourism disturbances (mostly sewage discharge and tourist activities) altered the community structure of both abundant and rare bacterioplankton by changing water physicochemical characteristics. Alpha diversity of both abundant and rare taxa did not differ among different anthropogenic disturbance lakes (p
> 0.05). Rare bacterial taxa possessed higher alpha diversity than abundant taxa, though rare taxa occupied a tiny portion of abundance (4.5%). Redundancy analysis demonstrated that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was the most significant correlation variable for constraining the variation of abundant taxa, whereas total phosphorus (TP), ammonium nitrogen (NH4+
-N), and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a
) were the most dominant environmental factors constraining the rare taxa, indicating abundant and rare taxa may have different ecological niches.
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