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Water 2018, 10(7), 914; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070914

Numerical Investigation on Infiltration and Runoff in Unsaturated Soils with Unsteady Rainfall Intensity

1
School of Civil and Resource Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
2
“Sponge City” Construction Bureau, Zhuanghe, Liaoning 116400, China
3
School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics)
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Abstract

Modeling infiltration into soil and runoff quantitative evaluations is very significant for hydrological applications. In this paper, a flow model of unsaturated soils was established. A computational process of soil water content and runoff prediction was presented that combines an analytical solution with numerical approaches. The solutions have good agreements with the experimental results and other infiltration solutions (Richards numerical solution and classical Green–Ampt solution). We analyzed the effects on cumulative infiltration and runoff under three conditions of rainfall intensity with same average magnitude. These rainfall conditions were (Case 1) decreasing rainfall, (Case 2) steady rainfall, and (Case 3) increasing rainfall, respectively. The results show that the cumulative infiltration in Case 1 is the highest among the three cases. The cumulative runoff under condition of Case 3 is smaller than that of decreasing rainfall at the initial stage, which then becomes larger at the later stage. The time of runoff under the conditions of Case 1 is earliest among the three rainfall conditions, which is about 50% earlier than Case 3. Therefore, project construction for urban flood control should pay more attention to urban flood defense in increasing rainfall weather than other rainfall intensities under the same average magnitude. The approaches presented can be utilized to easily and effectively evaluate infiltration and runoff as a theoretical foundation. View Full-Text
Keywords: numerical approach; unsteady rainfall; unsaturated soil; infiltration; runoff numerical approach; unsteady rainfall; unsaturated soil; infiltration; runoff
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Tan, J.; Song, H.; Zhang, H.; Zhu, Q.; Xing, Y.; Zhang, J. Numerical Investigation on Infiltration and Runoff in Unsaturated Soils with Unsteady Rainfall Intensity. Water 2018, 10, 914.

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