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Water 2018, 10(7), 903; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070903

A Study of Hydrogeochemical Processes on Karst Groundwater Using a Mass Balance Model in the Liulin Spring Area, North China

1
College of Water Resources Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, China
2
School of Water Conservancy, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou 450046, China
3
Taiyuan Design Research Institute for Coal Industry, Taiyuan 030001, China
4
Shanxi Hydrology and Water Resources Survey Bureau, Taiyuan 030001, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 May 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 30 June 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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Abstract

Exploring the hydrogeochemical processes of karst groundwater has significant meaning for protecting local groundwater systems in semi-arid areas. Taking a typical semi-arid karst groundwater system—the Liulin spring area—as the research region, hydrogeochemical processes from rainfall infiltration to formation of higher total dissolved solids (TDS) water were studied, applying a mass balance model and the prediction of water chemical components in the focus area was explored. The results showed that hydrogeochemical processes dominating chemical components of karst groundwater included lixiviation, cation exchange and mixture. Calcite dissolved during rainfall infiltration processes in recharge area and saturated, then precipitated along the whole flow path. CO2 dissolved significantly along with rainfall infiltration process and outgassed in discharge area and stagnant area. The dissolution of dolomite, gypsum and halite accompanied entire flow path and maximum dissolution load occurred in stagnant area. Mg-Na or Ca-Na exchange prevailed along flow path but exchange types depended on ionic concentration. The mixture between surface water and karst groundwater took place in surface water leakage belt in recharge and discharge area and mixture ratio for surface water ranged from 40% to 70%. TDS of the Liulin springs will increase with decreasing surface water leakage. Conversely, TDS of karst groundwater near Henggou area will decrease accompanied by the continuous discharge of the Henggou artesian well. View Full-Text
Keywords: karst groundwater; hydrogeochemical processes; mass balance model; the Liulin spring area karst groundwater; hydrogeochemical processes; mass balance model; the Liulin spring area
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Zheng, X.; Zang, H.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, J.; Zhang, F.; Shen, Y. A Study of Hydrogeochemical Processes on Karst Groundwater Using a Mass Balance Model in the Liulin Spring Area, North China. Water 2018, 10, 903.

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