Next Article in Journal
Simulating the Evolution of the Land and Water Resource System under Different Climates in Heilongjiang Province, China
Next Article in Special Issue
Threshold Based Footprints (for Water)
Previous Article in Journal
Correction: Mas, S., et al. Identification and Chemical Characterization of Insoluble Contaminants in Hemodialysis Water Treatment. Water 2018, 10, 486
Previous Article in Special Issue
Simplified Direct Water Footprint Model to Support Urban Water Management
Open AccessArticle

Assessing the Water Footprint of Wheat and Maize in Haihe River Basin, Northern China (1956–2015)

North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou 450046, China
Collaborative Innovation Center of Water Resources Efficient Utilization and Support Engineering, Zhengzhou 450046, China
Henan Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation and Treatment, Zhengzhou 450046, China
Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, China
Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, CAS & MWR, Yangling 712100, China
EcoLab, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Toulouse, France, Avenue de l’Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(7), 867;
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 21 June 2018 / Accepted: 21 June 2018 / Published: 29 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Water Footprint Assessment)
Assessing the water footprint (WF) of crops is key to understanding the agricultural water consumption and improving water use efficiency. This study assessed the WF of wheat and maize in the Haihe River Basin (HRB) of Northern China over the period1956–2015, including rain-fed, sufficient, and insufficient irrigation conditions by different irrigation intensity to understand the agricultural water use status. The major findings are as follows: (1) The annual average total WF of wheat and maize production is 20.1 (52% green, 29% blue, and 19% grey) and 15.1 (73% green, 3% blue, and 24% grey) billion m3 year−1, respectively. The proportion of grey WF is much larger than the world average; (2) Wheat has larger unit WF (1580 m3 t−1) than maize (1275 m3 t−1). The unit WF of both wheat and maize shows exponentially decreasing trends, indicating that water use efficiency has been improved. The unit WF is heterogeneous in space, which is larger in Tianjin and Huanghua and smaller in the Southern HRB; (3) Rain-fed crops have the largest unit WF, followed by crops under insufficient and sufficient irrigation conditions for both wheat and maize. To improve the sustainability of water resources, the application of fertilizer must be reduced, and irrigation is an effective way to improve water use efficiency in water-abundant areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: water footprint; irrigation intensity; wheat; maize; Haihe River Basin water footprint; irrigation intensity; wheat; maize; Haihe River Basin
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Han, Y.; Jia, D.; Zhuo, L.; Sauvage, S.; Sánchez-Pérez, J.-M.; Huang, H.; Wang, C. Assessing the Water Footprint of Wheat and Maize in Haihe River Basin, Northern China (1956–2015). Water 2018, 10, 867.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop