Next Article in Journal
Effects of Land Cover Change on Urban Floods and Rainwater Harvesting: A Case Study in Sharjah, UAE
Next Article in Special Issue
Assessing the Water Footprint of Wheat and Maize in Haihe River Basin, Northern China (1956–2015)
Previous Article in Journal
Experimental Analysis of the Hydraulic Performance of Filtering Cartridges in Drinking Water Networks
Previous Article in Special Issue
Water Footprints of Vegetable Crop Wastage along the Supply Chain in Gauteng, South Africa
Open AccessArticle

Simplified Direct Water Footprint Model to Support Urban Water Management

Institute of Environmental Engineering, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, pl. Grunwaldzki 24, 50-363 Wroclaw, Poland
New Technologies Center, Municipal Water and Sewage Company MPWiK S.A., ul. Na Grobli 14/16, 50-421 Wrocław, Poland
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova CESQA, via Marzolo 9-35131, Padova, Italy
Unit of Environmental Engineering, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 13, A6020 Innsbruck, Austria
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(5), 630;
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 4 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 12 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Water Footprint Assessment)
Water resources conservation corresponding to urban growth is an increasing challenge for European policy makers. Water footprint (WF) is one of the methods to address this challenge. The objective of this study was to develop a simplified model to assess the WF of direct domestic and non-domestic water use within an urban area and to demonstrate its effectiveness in supporting new urban water management strategies and solutions. The new model was tested on three Central European urban areas with different characteristics i.e., Wroclaw (Poland), Innsbruck (Austria), and Vicenza (Italy). Obtained WFs varied from 291 dm3/(day∙capita) in Wroclaw, 551 dm3/(day∙capita) in Vicezna to 714 dm3/(day∙capita) in Innsbruck. In addition, WF obtained with the proposed model for the city of Vicenza was compared with a more complex approach. The results proved the model to be robust in providing reasonable results using a small amount of data. View Full-Text
Keywords: Central Europe; modelling; urban area; water footprint; water management Central Europe; modelling; urban area; water footprint; water management
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Fialkiewicz, W.; Burszta-Adamiak, E.; Kolonko-Wiercik, A.; Manzardo, A.; Loss, A.; Mikovits, C.; Scipioni, A. Simplified Direct Water Footprint Model to Support Urban Water Management. Water 2018, 10, 630.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop