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Water 2018, 10(6), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060754

H3PO4-Activated Cattail Carbon Production and Application in Chromium Removal from Aqueous Solution: Process Optimization and Removal Mechanism

1
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004, China
2
College of Life Science and Technology, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004, China
3
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410084, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 9 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Abstract

In this study, Box–Behnken design (BBD) was employed to optimize the process for H3PO4-activated Typha angustifolia activated carbon (TAC) production and Cr removal by TAC; the removal mechanisms were discussed based on TAC characterization, and the regeneration evaluation was also conducted. The optimum preparation conditions were activated time of 1.5 h, temperature of 469.02 °C, and incubation ratio of 4, resulting in an experimental carbon yield of 38.23% and Cr removal of 90.01%. The optimum adsorption parameters were found to be 0.02 g/50 mL TAC, 80 mg/L Cr(VI), and 2.21 pH with the observed Cr adsorption capacity of 59.54 mg/g. The removal mechanisms involved coulombic attraction, ionic exchange, surface complexation, and reduction. The process of Cr(VI) adsorption was feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic in nature, and the pseudo-second-order and Langmuir isotherm models were more appropriate for the removal process. After five adsorption/desorption cycles, the Cr adsorption capacity on TAC reduced by only 24.37%. The results showed that BBD could successfully optimize TAC production and Cr removal, and TAC could be developed as a promising, eco-friendly, and effective adsorbent for Cr pollution control. View Full-Text
Keywords: process optimization; Typha angustifolia; biochar; Cr(VI); removal mechanism process optimization; Typha angustifolia; biochar; Cr(VI); removal mechanism
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Shu, Y.; Tang, C.; Hu, X.; Jiang, L.; Hu, X.; Zhao, Y. H3PO4-Activated Cattail Carbon Production and Application in Chromium Removal from Aqueous Solution: Process Optimization and Removal Mechanism. Water 2018, 10, 754.

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