Next Article in Journal
Integrating Field Experiments with Modeling to Evaluate the Freshwater Availability at Ungauged Sites: A Case Study of Pingtan Island (China)
Next Article in Special Issue
Storm Water Management and Flood Control in Sponge City Construction of Beijing
Previous Article in Journal
The Atmospheric Branch of the Hydrological Cycle over the Negro and Madeira River Basins in the Amazon Region
Previous Article in Special Issue
Assessing Urban Water Management Sustainability of a Megacity: Case Study of Seoul, South Korea

Governing Non-Potable Water-Reuse to Alleviate Water Stress: The Case of Sabadell, Spain

University College of Utrecht, Utrecht University, Campusplein 1, 3584 ED Utrecht, The Netherlands
KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Groningenhaven 7, 3433 PE Nieuwegein, The Netherlands
Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht, The Netherlands
Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic, Plaça de la Ciencia, 2, 08243 Manresa, Spain
CASSA, Companyia d’Aigües de Sabadell, S.A., Concepció, 20-08202 Sabadell, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(6), 739;
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Challenges of Water Management and Governance in Cities)
The world will experience an estimated 40% freshwater supply shortage by 2030, converting water scarcity into one of the principal global challenges that modern society faces. Urban water reuse is recognized as a promising and necessary measure to alleviate the growing water stress in many regions. The transformation to widespread application of water-reuse systems requires major changes in the way water is governed, and countries such as Spain already find themselves involved in this process. Through the systematic assessment of the city of Sabadell (Spain), we aim to identify the main barriers, opportunities and transferable lessons that can enhance governance capacity to implement systems for non-potable reuse of treated wastewater in cities. It was found that continuous learning, the availability and quality of information, the level of knowledge, and strong agents of change are the main capacity-building priorities. On the other hand, awareness, multilevel network potential and implementing capacity are already well-established. It is concluded that in order to undertake a widespread application of water-reuse practices, criteria examining water quality according to its use need to be developed independently of the water’s origin. The development and implementation of such a legislative frame should be based on the experience of local water-reuse practices and continuous evaluation. Finally, the need for public engagement and adequate pricing mechanisms are emphasized. View Full-Text
Keywords: water-reuse; governance capacity; water management; water scarcity water-reuse; governance capacity; water management; water scarcity
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Šteflová, M.; Koop, S.; Elelman, R.; Vinyoles, J.; Van Leeuwen, K. Governing Non-Potable Water-Reuse to Alleviate Water Stress: The Case of Sabadell, Spain. Water 2018, 10, 739.

AMA Style

Šteflová M, Koop S, Elelman R, Vinyoles J, Van Leeuwen K. Governing Non-Potable Water-Reuse to Alleviate Water Stress: The Case of Sabadell, Spain. Water. 2018; 10(6):739.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Šteflová, Marketa, Steven Koop, Richard Elelman, Jordi Vinyoles, and Kees Van Leeuwen. 2018. "Governing Non-Potable Water-Reuse to Alleviate Water Stress: The Case of Sabadell, Spain" Water 10, no. 6: 739.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop