Next Article in Journal
Simulation of Urban Water Resources in Xiamen Based on a WEAP Model
Previous Article in Journal
A Comparative Study of Groundwater Level Forecasting Using Data-Driven Models Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition
Previous Article in Special Issue
Coastal California Wastewater Effluent as a Resource for Seawater Desalination Brine Commingling
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2018, 10(6), 731;

What Germany’s University Beginners Think about Water Reuse

ZMNU (Centre of Math & Science Education), Department of Biology Education, University of Bayreuth, NW-1, D-95447 Bavaria, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 April 2018 / Revised: 24 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Supply through Desalination and Wastewater Reuse)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1385 KB, uploaded 21 June 2018]   |  


Water reuse is a new technology, not yet implemented, but discussed for use in Germany. Public opinion plays a major role in the success of the introduction of this new technology and was not yet analyzed for Germany. When monitoring 340 university beginners’ conceptions regarding water reuse, a variety of conceptions appeared. While usage of tap water is accepted for drinking purposes, acceptance of recycled water for oral consumption was low. When asked for reasons for (not) using recycled water, three groups of respondents were extracted: (a) The acceptors (convinced of quality, or naming sustainability as a reason); (b) the undecided (doubts about quality, rejection of its use for consumption, and psychological conflicts of logic and disgust); (c) the non-acceptors (unconvinced of quality and preference for bottled water). When asked about factors that would lead to accepting the use of recycled water, insights into treatment processes were identified as the most convincing, followed by educational films and guided tours. Participants showed high conviction about currently existing tap-water qualities. Having water that is cleaned before it reaches the consumer was reported to have high priority. To increase acceptance of water reuse, recommendations for appropriate outreach programs are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: water reuse; recycled water; attitudes; adolescents water reuse; recycled water; attitudes; adolescents

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Schmid, S.; Bogner, F.X. What Germany’s University Beginners Think about Water Reuse. Water 2018, 10, 731.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top