# Effects of Water Depth and Ice Thickness on Ice Cover Blasting for Ice Jam Flood Prevention: A Case Study on the Heilong River, China

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Methods

#### 2.1. Selection of Explosive Type, Amount, and Timing

_{opt}is the optimal amount of explosives (kg) and $t$ is the ice cover thickness (m). This equation was fitted based on a large amount of measured data and shows that the optimal amount of explosives is positively correlated to t

^{3}. In practice, once the ice cover thickness exceeds 1.0 m, the amount of explosives necessary increases quickly.

#### 2.2. Selection of Blasting Locations

#### 2.3. Challenges to the Study of Blasting Craters

#### 2.4. Regression Analysis for Ice-Blasting Variables

## 3. Results

#### 3.1. Behavior and Characteristics of Blasting Craters

#### 3.2. Relationship between Blasting Crater Radius and Ice Cover Thickness

#### 3.3. Relationship between Water Depth, Blasting Crater Radius, and Ice Cover Thickness

#### 3.4. Proposed Formula and Analysis of Experiment Results

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Study area: (

**a**) Location of the Heilong River and its major tributaries; (

**b**) detail of the Mohe reach on the Heilong River.

**Figure 2.**Ice cover thickness and water depth as measured along the Longdao Wharf section of the Mohe reach, Heilong River.

**Figure 4.**Typical blasting crater types and post-blasting features: (

**a**) mountain-shaped; (

**b**) standard; (

**c**) fully broken; (

**d**) post-blasting ice cracks.

**Table 1.**Historical records of ice jam events on the Heilong River obtained from the Hydrological Bureau of Heilongjiang Province.

Year | Breakup Date (Month-Day) | Central Location of Ice Jam | Maximum Head Increase (m) | Period of Ice Jam (Month-Day) |
---|---|---|---|---|

1950 | / | Oupu in Huma reach | 9.40 | 05-09 to 05-11 |

1953 | / | Luoguhe in Mohe reach | 7.46 | 05-05 to 05-08 |

1956 | / | Luoguhe in Mohe reach | 7.39 | 05-08 to 05-10 |

1958 | 05-01 | Malun in Mohe reach | 10.14 | 05-05 to 05-10 |

1960 | 04-26 | Jialinda/Lianyin in Mohe reach | 13.56 | 04-27 to 05-10 |

1961 | 04-27 | Lianyin in Mohe reach | 8.03 | / |

1964 | 04-30 | Guchen Island in Mohe reach | 8.00 | 05-02 to 05-14 |

1970 | 04-27 | Huma in Huma reach | 5.22 | / |

1971 | 04-23 | Luoguhe in Mohe reach | 9.90 | 04-23 to 05-04 |

1973 | 05-05 | Guchen Island in Mohe reach | 8.20 | 05-06 to 06-01 |

1977 | 05-03 | Mohe City in Mohe reach | 6.65 | / |

1981 | 04-23 | Luoguhe in Mohe reach | 7.46 | 04-28 to 04-30 |

1985 | 04-18 | Jialinda/Lianyin in Mohe reach | 12.60 | 04-17 to 05-29 |

1986 | 05-04 | Jialinda/Mohe City in Mohe reach | 9.25 | 05-04 to 05-08 |

1987 | 05-08 | Oupu in Huma reach | 6.17 | / |

1988 | 04-22 | Kaikukang in Tahe reach | 5.11 | / |

1991 | 05-01 | Luoguhe in Mohe reach | 8.80 | 04-28 to 05-04 |

1994 | 04-29 | Luoguhe in Mohe reach | 10.93 | 04-29 to 05-10 |

1995 | 05-03 | Luoguhe in Mohe reach | 10.10 | 05-05 to 05-09 |

2000 | 04-28 | Jinshan in Muma reach | 9.23 | 04-29 to 05-01 |

2009 | 04-14 | Hongqiling in Mohe reach | / | 04-16 to 04-21 |

2010 | 04-25 | Xingan in Mohe reach | 8.34 | 05-03 to 05-09 |

2013 | 05-01 | Mohe City in Mohe reach | / | 05-02 to 05-07 |

Conditions | Type of Regression Equation | Evaluation Method | |
---|---|---|---|

Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) | Correlation Coefficient (r) | ||

Relation between scaled blasting crater radius and scaled ice cover thickness | Pure binomial Equation (6) | 0.8686 | 0.9087 |

Pure binomial Equation (7) | 0.8745 | 0.9073 | |

Relation between scaled blasting crater radius, ice scaled thickness, and scaled water depth | Cross trinomial Equation (8) | 0.7577 | 0.9371 |

Pure trinomial Equation (9) | 0.7621 | 0.9311 | |

Cross binomial Equation (10) | 0.8294 | 0.9184 | |

Pure binomial Equation (11) | 0.8308 | 0.9180 |

Relative Error | Trinomial Equations | Binomial Equations | ||
---|---|---|---|---|

Cross Trinomial Equation (8) | Pure Trinomial Equation (9) | Cross Binomial Equation (10) | Pure Binomial Equation (11) | |

Average relative error | 7.4 | 7.5 | 8.4 | 8.5 |

Max relative error | 24.6 | 24.7 | 25.9 | 26.2 |

Min relative error | 0.0 | 0.1 | 0.1 | 0.0 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Wang, T.; Guo, X.; Fu, H.; Guo, Y.; Peng, X.; Wu, Y.; Li, J.; Xia, Y.
Effects of Water Depth and Ice Thickness on Ice Cover Blasting for Ice Jam Flood Prevention: A Case Study on the Heilong River, China. *Water* **2018**, *10*, 700.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060700

**AMA Style**

Wang T, Guo X, Fu H, Guo Y, Peng X, Wu Y, Li J, Xia Y.
Effects of Water Depth and Ice Thickness on Ice Cover Blasting for Ice Jam Flood Prevention: A Case Study on the Heilong River, China. *Water*. 2018; 10(6):700.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060700

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Wang, Tao, Xinlei Guo, Hui Fu, Yongxin Guo, Xuming Peng, Yunan Wu, Jiazhen Li, and Yinyin Xia.
2018. "Effects of Water Depth and Ice Thickness on Ice Cover Blasting for Ice Jam Flood Prevention: A Case Study on the Heilong River, China" *Water* 10, no. 6: 700.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060700