Next Article in Journal
Monitoring of a Full-Scale Embankment Experiment Regarding Soil–Vegetation–Atmosphere Interactions
Previous Article in Journal
The Spatial and Temporal Variability of Groundwater Vulnerability and Human Health Risk in the Limin District, Harbin, China
Open AccessArticle

Coastal Aquifer Contamination and Geochemical Processes Evaluation in Tugela Catchment, South Africa—Geochemical and Statistical Approaches

1
Department of Hydrology, University of Zululand, Kwa Dlangezwa 3886, South Africa
2
Water Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21598, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(6), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060687
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 25 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
Assessment of groundwater quality, contamination sources and geochemical processes in the coastal aquifer of Tugela Catchment, South Africa were carried out by the geochemical and statistical approach using major ion chemistry of 36 groundwater samples. Results suggest that the spatial distribution pattern of EC, TDS, Na, Mg, Cl and SO4 are homogenous and elevated concentrations are observed in the wells in the coastal region and few wells near the Tugela River. Wells located far from the coast are enriched by Ca, HCO3 and CO3. Durov diagrams, Gibbs plots, ionic ratios, chloro alkaline indices (CAI1 and CAI2) and correlation analysis imply that groundwater chemistry in the coastal aquifer of Tugela Catchment is regulated by the ion exchange, mineral dissolution, saline sources, and wastewater infiltration from domestic sewage; septic tank leakage and irrigation return flow. Principle component analysis also ensured the role of saline and anthropogenic sources and carbonates dissolution on water chemistry. Spatial distributions of factor score also justify the above predictions. Groundwater suitability assessment indicates that around 80% and 90% of wells exceeded the drinking water standards recommended by the WHO and South African drinking water standards (SAWQG), respectively. Based on SAR, RSC, PI, and MH classifications, most of the wells are suitable for irrigation in the study region. USSL classification suggests that groundwater is suitable for coarse-textured soils and salt-tolerant crops. The study recommends that a proper management plan is required to protect this coastal aquifer efficiently. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater; geochemistry; statistics; coastal aquifer; Tugela Catchment; South Africa groundwater; geochemistry; statistics; coastal aquifer; Tugela Catchment; South Africa
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ntanganedzeni, B.; Elumalai, V.; Rajmohan, N. Coastal Aquifer Contamination and Geochemical Processes Evaluation in Tugela Catchment, South Africa—Geochemical and Statistical Approaches. Water 2018, 10, 687.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop