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Open AccessArticle

The Spatial and Temporal Variability of Groundwater Vulnerability and Human Health Risk in the Limin District, Harbin, China

1
College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
2
Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China
3
College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, No 100 Pinglevuan, Beijing 100124, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(6), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060686
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 25 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
This study aimed to analyze the variations in groundwater quality, vulnerability and potential health risk from 2006 to 2016 in the Limin District, Harbin, China. Groundwater geochemical characteristics were described using statistical analysis and Piper diagrams. A modified DRASTIC model that combined factors of intrinsic aquifer vulnerability and land use was applied to assess groundwater vulnerability. The weights of parameters were adjusted by using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to optimize the model. The non-carcinogenic health risk was estimated by the Unites States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) model. Results suggested that concentrations of NH4-N, Fe and Mn in groundwater exceeded the limits both in 2006 and in 2016. The concentration of Fe in the groundwater showed more significant variation between 2006 and 2016 than the other parameters. Very high vulnerability zones increased from 6.3% in 2006 to 16.9% in 2016, and distributed on agricultural land, indicating that agriculture was still a major source of pollution. Mn and NO3-N contributed the most to human health risks in 2006 and 2016, respectively. This study highlights the influence of groundwater quality variation in decadal exploitation on human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: DRASTIC model; groundwater vulnerability; human health risk assessment; spatial and temporal variation DRASTIC model; groundwater vulnerability; human health risk assessment; spatial and temporal variation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, Y.; Zuo, R.; Li, J.; Wu, J.; Zhai, Y.; Teng, Y. The Spatial and Temporal Variability of Groundwater Vulnerability and Human Health Risk in the Limin District, Harbin, China. Water 2018, 10, 686.

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