Next Article in Journal
Effects of Input Data Content on the Uncertainty of Simulating Water Resources
Previous Article in Journal
Decrease in Snow Cover over the Aysén River Catchment in Patagonia, Chile
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2018, 10(5), 620;

Potential of Biofilters for Treatment of De-Icing Chemicals

SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, Water and Environment, Richard Birkelands vei 3A, 7034 Trondheim, Norway
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, S.P. Andersens veg 5, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 27 April 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Wastewater Treatment)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2494 KB, uploaded 10 May 2018]   |  


Organic de-icing chemicals, such as propylene glycol and potassium formate, cause environmental degradation in receiving water if left untreated, due to the high organic load resulting in oxygen depletion. Biofilters are commonly used for the treatment of biodegradable organic carbon in water treatment. This study investigated the potential for using biofilters for treating organic de-icing compounds. Lab-scale adsorption tests using filter media made of crushed clay (Filtralite) and granular activated carbon were conducted. Further, a column filtration experiment testing two different crushed clay size ranges was carried out investigating the effect of filter media depth, nutrient addition, and filtration rate. The surrogate parameter used to monitor the removal of de-icing chemicals was dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The adsorption test showed no significant adsorption of DOC was observed. The column test showed that the most active separation occurred in the first ~20 cm of the filter depth. This was confirmed by results from (1) water quality analysis (i.e., DOC removal and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) measurement); and (2) calculations based on a filtration performance analysis (Iwasaki model) and filter hydraulic evaluation (Lindquist diagram). The results showed that, for the highest C:N:P ratio tested (molar ratio of 24:7:1), 50–60% DOC removal was achieved. The addition of nutrients was found to be important for determining the biofilter performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: biofilter; de-icing chemicals; filtration performance; nutrients; stormwater biofilter; de-icing chemicals; filtration performance; nutrients; stormwater

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Raspati, G.S.; Lindseth, H.K.H.; Muthanna, T.M.; Azrague, K. Potential of Biofilters for Treatment of De-Icing Chemicals. Water 2018, 10, 620.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top