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Application of CityDrain3 in Flood Simulation of Sponge Polders: A Case Study of Kunshan, China

School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 2 Sipai Lou, Nanjing 210096, China
Southeast University–Monash University Joint Research Centre for Water Sensitive Cities, Suzhou 215123, China
Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia
Department of Infrastructure Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
Kunshan Construct Engineering Quality Testing Center, Kunshan 215337, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(4), 507;
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sponge Cities: Emerging Approaches, Challenges and Opportunities)
PDF [8395 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]


The selection of sponge city facilities (e.g., pump, storage tank, wetland, or bioretention pond) to mitigate urban floods has been a crucial issue in China. This study aims to develop a conceptual flood-simulation model, which can take into account the effects of such facilities of a sponge city. Taking Jiangpu polder in Kunshan City as a case study, CityDrain3 was implemented to develop a baseline model and another three sponge polder models (pump only, storage tank only, pump, and storage tank). A sensitivity analysis was carried out to guarantee the robustness of the newly developed model. In the model application part, firstly, one-hour rainfall scenarios with different return periods (2a, 5a, 10a, 20a, 50a, 100a, with ‘a’ referring to a year) were employed as inputs to the conceptual baseline model. The growing trend of flood depth (from 12.69 mm to 17.16 mm) simulated by the baseline model under increased return periods (from 3a to 100a) demonstrated the feasibility of polder flood simulations using CityDrain3. Secondly, a one-hour rainfall scenario with a 10-year return period was employed on the baseline model and the three sponge polder models. The results showed that the effect rankings of the control strategies on the total flood volume, peak flow, flood yielding time, and the peak-flow occurrence time were comparable—combined strategies (pump and storage tank) > storage tank only > pump only. The conceptual, and hydrological model developed in this study can serve as a simulation tool for implementing a real-time urban storm water drainage control system in the Jiangpu polder. View Full-Text
Keywords: CityDrain3 model; sponge city; polder; urban flood; sensitivity analysis CityDrain3 model; sponge city; polder; urban flood; sensitivity analysis

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Wei, D.; Urich, C.; Liu, S.; Gu, S. Application of CityDrain3 in Flood Simulation of Sponge Polders: A Case Study of Kunshan, China. Water 2018, 10, 507.

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