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Open AccessArticle

Simulation of Groundwater Flow and Migration of the Radioactive Cobalt-60 from LAMA Nuclear Facility-Iraq

Building and Construction Engineering Department, University of Technology, Baghdad 35010, Iraq
Water 2018, 10(2), 176;
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 25 January 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isotopes in Hydrology and Hydrogeology)
This study provides a simulation of groundwater flow and advective-dispersive migration of radioactive Co-60 through an aquifer with three layers, which release or leak to groundwater from the Active Metallurgy Testing Laboratory (LAMA) Nuclear Facility-Iraq due to the nuclear accident scenario. Processing Modflow for windows (PMWIN) and Modular Three-Dimensional Multispecies Transport (MT3DMS) Models were used for this purpose. The study area and the contaminated area were 12.7 km2 and 0.005625 km2, respectively. Water levels of the groundwater have been measured in six monitoring wells. The simulation time was assumed to have started in 2016. The PMWIN model simulated the flow for two scenarios of water level in Tigris River (average and minimum water levels). The MT3DMS model simulated 10 years of plume travel, beginning in 2016. The simulated Co-60 concentrations after five years of travel were 32.34 and 34.44 μg/m3 for the two scenarios. The maximum predicted Co-60 concentrations at the end of Year 10 were 34.86 and 37.31 μg/m3, respectively. The sensitivity analysis showed that the simulated hydraulic heads in the observation wells and the simulated plume of Co-60 were highly sensitive to changes in the effective porosity but less sensitive to changes in other parameters of the dispersion and chemical reaction processes. The time necessary to reach steady state condition was predicted to be approximately 16 years. The contaminated area was isolated by using remedial process which is represented by three fully penetrating pumping wells with a suitable flow rate (0.045 m3/s) for controlling the movement of Co-60 pollutant. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater; pollutant; Co-60; LAMA Nuclear Facility groundwater; pollutant; Co-60; LAMA Nuclear Facility
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Khayyun, T.S. Simulation of Groundwater Flow and Migration of the Radioactive Cobalt-60 from LAMA Nuclear Facility-Iraq. Water 2018, 10, 176.

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