Next Article in Journal
Roof Rainwater Harvesting in Central Mexico: Uses, Benefits, and Factors of Adoption
Next Article in Special Issue
The Effects of Antibiotics on Microbial Community Composition in an Estuary Reservoir during Spring and Summer Seasons
Previous Article in Journal
Seasonal Variability and Evolution of Glaciochemistry at An Alpine Temperate Glacier on the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau
Previous Article in Special Issue
Occurrence, Distribution, and Risk Assessment of Antibiotics in a Subtropical River-Reservoir System
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2018, 10(2), 115;

Occurrence, Seasonal Variation and Risk Assessment of Antibiotics in Qingcaosha Reservoir

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
Sino-Japan Friendship Centre for Environmental Protection, Beijing 100029, China
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576, Singapore
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 6 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 29 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters)
Full-Text   |   PDF [17605 KB, uploaded 29 January 2018]   |  


Qingcaosha Reservoir is an important drinking water source in Shanghai. The occurrence of five groups of antibiotics was investigated in the surface water of this reservoir over a one-year period. Seventeen antibiotics were selected in this study based on their significant usage in China. Of these antibiotics, 16 were detected, while oxytetracycline was not detected in any sampling site. The detected frequency of tylosin was only 47.92% while the other 15 antibiotics were above 81.25%. The dominant antibiotic was different in four seasons: norfloxacin was dominant in spring, and penicillinV was dominant in summer, autumn and winter, with medium concentrations of 124.10 ng/L, 89.91 ng/L, 180.28 ng/L, and 216.43 ng/L, respectively. The concentrations and detection frequencies of antibiotics were notably higher in winter than in other seasons, demonstrating that low temperature and low flow may result in the persistence of antibiotics in the aquatic environment. Risk assessment suggested that norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, penicillinV, and doxycycline in the surface water presented high ecological risks. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotics; Qingcaosha reservoir; risk assessment antibiotics; Qingcaosha reservoir; risk assessment

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Jiang, Y.; Xu, C.; Wu, X.; Chen, Y.; Han, W.; Gin, K.Y.-H.; He, Y. Occurrence, Seasonal Variation and Risk Assessment of Antibiotics in Qingcaosha Reservoir. Water 2018, 10, 115.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top