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Open AccessArticle

Occurrence, Seasonal Variation and Risk Assessment of Antibiotics in Qingcaosha Reservoir

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
Sino-Japan Friendship Centre for Environmental Protection, Beijing 100029, China
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576, Singapore
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(2), 115;
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 6 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 29 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters)
Qingcaosha Reservoir is an important drinking water source in Shanghai. The occurrence of five groups of antibiotics was investigated in the surface water of this reservoir over a one-year period. Seventeen antibiotics were selected in this study based on their significant usage in China. Of these antibiotics, 16 were detected, while oxytetracycline was not detected in any sampling site. The detected frequency of tylosin was only 47.92% while the other 15 antibiotics were above 81.25%. The dominant antibiotic was different in four seasons: norfloxacin was dominant in spring, and penicillinV was dominant in summer, autumn and winter, with medium concentrations of 124.10 ng/L, 89.91 ng/L, 180.28 ng/L, and 216.43 ng/L, respectively. The concentrations and detection frequencies of antibiotics were notably higher in winter than in other seasons, demonstrating that low temperature and low flow may result in the persistence of antibiotics in the aquatic environment. Risk assessment suggested that norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, penicillinV, and doxycycline in the surface water presented high ecological risks. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotics; Qingcaosha reservoir; risk assessment antibiotics; Qingcaosha reservoir; risk assessment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jiang, Y.; Xu, C.; Wu, X.; Chen, Y.; Han, W.; Gin, K.Y.-H.; He, Y. Occurrence, Seasonal Variation and Risk Assessment of Antibiotics in Qingcaosha Reservoir. Water 2018, 10, 115.

AMA Style

Jiang Y, Xu C, Wu X, Chen Y, Han W, Gin KY-H, He Y. Occurrence, Seasonal Variation and Risk Assessment of Antibiotics in Qingcaosha Reservoir. Water. 2018; 10(2):115.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jiang, Yue; Xu, Cong; Wu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Yihan; Han, Wei; Gin, Karina Y.-H.; He, Yiliang. 2018. "Occurrence, Seasonal Variation and Risk Assessment of Antibiotics in Qingcaosha Reservoir" Water 10, no. 2: 115.

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