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Groundwater Quality and Suitability for Different Uses in the Saloum Area of Senegal

1
Department of Civil Engineering, ESP, University Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal, PO Box 5085 Dakar Fann, Senegal
2
Faculty of Sciences, University of Poitiers, IC2MP, 5 Rue Albert Turpain, B8 TSA 51106, 86073 Poitiers, CEDEX 9, France
3
Department of Geology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Cheikh Anta Diop, BP 5005 Dakar-Fann, Senegal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(12), 1837; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121837
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 6 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrogeology: Trend, Model, Methodology and Concepts)
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Abstract

Hydrogeochemical analyses were conducted on groundwater sampled from the Saloum aquifer, in southern Senegal. The objective was to identify the chemical processes that control hydrochemistry and to assess the quality of groundwater for determining its suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes. Water samples were collected from 79 wells during the dry season in May 2012, and were subjected to analysis for chemical characteristics (major ions), pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solid (TDS). The dominant hydrochemical facies observed for the groundwater samples are NaCl and CaHCO3. Gibbs plot depicts predominance of rock water interaction and evaporation processes controlling the water chemistry. Percentage of Na+, Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC), Total Hardness (TH) and Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) values were calculated. The results were compared with the standard guideline values recommended by the World Health Organization and agricultural water standards. The TDS in groundwater is less than 1200 mg/L and SAR values are less than 10. RSC values overall are less than 1.25 meq/L. Results show that the groundwater in the area has generally a low hardness and is fresh (95%) to brackish. The majority of groundwater samples are appropriate for domestic uses. The indexes for water irrigation compared with standard limits revealed that most of the Saloum groundwater samples fall in the suitable range for irrigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemical processes; drinking water; groundwater; hydrochemistry; irrigation water; salinization; Saloum delta river; Senegal; vulnerability; water quality chemical processes; drinking water; groundwater; hydrochemistry; irrigation water; salinization; Saloum delta river; Senegal; vulnerability; water quality
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ndoye, S.; Fontaine, C.; Gaye, C.B.; Razack, M. Groundwater Quality and Suitability for Different Uses in the Saloum Area of Senegal. Water 2018, 10, 1837.

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