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Water 2018, 10(10), 1427; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101427

FDOM Conversion in Karst Watersheds Expressed by Three-Dimensional Fluorescence Spectroscopy

1
801 Institute of Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology, Shandong Provincial Bureau of Geology & Mineral Resources, Jinan 250014, China
2
Ministry of Natural Resources, China, Key Laboratory of Karst Ecosystem and Treatment of Rocky Desertification, Guilin 541004, China
3
Ministry of Natural Resources & Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Key Laboratory of Karst Dynamics, Institute of Karst Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Guilin 541004, China
4
State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550081, China
5
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China
6
School of Environmental and Planning, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 4 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Watershed Hydrology, Erosion and Sediment Transport Processes)
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Abstract

A karst system, formed by the dissolution of carbonate rocks, is usually susceptible to contamination. Little is known about the composition of natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) in groundwater systems, especially in karstic groundwater. To reveal the characteristics of DOM in a karst aquifer, the Yufuhe River Basin, a typical karst watershed in northern China, was selected. DOM fluorescence (FDOM) was measured with the excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) spectroscopy technique. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was used to analyze the karst hydrogeological factors that affect FDOM biogeochemical behavior. Three fluorescent components, i.e., tyrosine-like, tryptophan-like, and ultraviolet fulvic acid were found. Their fluorescence properties were closely related to human activity and subterranean hydrology. Fluorescence properties suggested that FDOM in the Yufuhe River karst aquifer was predominant from anthropogenic activity. In addition, due to the effect of karstic heterogeneous hydrological conditions, FDOM showed obvious differentiation in the recharge, flow path, and discharge systems. The FDOM fluorescence intensity (FI) was weak in surface water and groundwater at the upper reaches (recharge area). In the middle of the flow path area, the percentage of tyrosine-like and tryptophan-like substances degraded and fulvic acid rose gradually. However, after infiltrating into the lower reaches (discharge area) of the deep karst aquifer system, the fulvic acid matter was consumed and protein-like matter accumulated. View Full-Text
Keywords: Yufuhe River; karst aquatic system; groundwater; dissolved organic matter fluorescence (FDOM); three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy Yufuhe River; karst aquatic system; groundwater; dissolved organic matter fluorescence (FDOM); three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Liu, W.; Zhang, L.; Liu, P.; Qin, X.; Shan, X.; Yao, X. FDOM Conversion in Karst Watersheds Expressed by Three-Dimensional Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Water 2018, 10, 1427.

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