Next Article in Journal
Applications of Graph Spectral Techniques to Water Distribution Network Management
Previous Article in Journal
Comparative Analyses between the Zero-Inertia and Fully Dynamic Models of the Shallow Water Equations for Unsteady Overland Flow Propagation
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2018, 10(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10010047

Evaluation of Thermal Stratification and Flow Field Reproduced by a Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model in Lake Biwa, Japan

Division of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada-oka 2-1 Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 October 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 January 2018 / Published: 9 January 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [5698 KB, uploaded 9 January 2018]   |  

Abstract

Water temperature near the surface of a lake increases with increasing air temperature, which results in stratification. The strength of stratification substantially influences the transport of water parcels from the surface to the bottom of a lake. In recent years, the stratification in Lake Biwa—the largest freshwater lake in Japan—has been stronger. However, it is difficult to reproduce the stratification well in the simulations. In the present study, we built a hydrodynamic model for the purpose of analyzing the structure of the stratification in detail. Using the model, we evaluated the reproducibility of the seasonal and annual changes of vertical water distribution and flow field in Lake Biwa from 2007 to 2011. The hydrodynamic model results show that the vertical water distribution approximately agrees with the field observations based on the statistical analysis. The seasonal change of thermal stratification is reasonably reproduced by the hydrodynamic model simulations. In the simulation, there are mainly two circulation flows at the surface layer of the lake. The first flows anticlockwise and the second flows clockwise in the northern part of Lake Biwa. In order to compensate for the surface water flow, the water under the thermocline sometimes flows in the opposite direction under each circulation flow. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrodynamic model; vertical mixing; structure of the stratification; Lake Biwa hydrodynamic model; vertical mixing; structure of the stratification; Lake Biwa
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Koue, J.; Shimadera, H.; Matsuo, T.; Kondo, A. Evaluation of Thermal Stratification and Flow Field Reproduced by a Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model in Lake Biwa, Japan. Water 2018, 10, 47.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top