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Atmosphere 2018, 9(8), 310;

The FuGas 2.3 Framework for Atmosphere–Ocean Coupling: Comparing Algorithms for the Estimation of Solubilities and Gas Fluxes

MARETEC–Marine Environment and Technology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
DataCastor, U Svobodarny 1063/6, 190 00 Praha 9 Prague, Czech Republic
Institute of Computer Science, Czech Academy of Sciences, 11720 Prague, Czech Republic
Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, INGV, 40128 Bologna, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Chemistry of the Air-Water Interface)
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Accurate estimates of the atmosphere–ocean fluxes of greenhouse gases and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) have great importance in climate change models. A significant part of these fluxes occur at the coastal ocean which, although much smaller than the open ocean, have more heterogeneous conditions. Hence, Earth System Modelling (ESM) requires representing the oceans at finer resolutions which, in turn, requires better descriptions of the chemical, physical and biological processes. The standard formulations for the solubilities and gas transfer velocities across air–water surfaces are 36 and 24 years old, and new alternatives have emerged. We have developed a framework combining the related geophysical processes and choosing from alternative formulations with different degrees of complexity. The framework was tested with fine resolution data from the European coastal ocean. Although the benchmark and alternative solubility formulations generally agreed well, their minor divergences yielded differences of up to 5.8% for CH4 dissolved at the ocean surface. The transfer velocities differ strongly (often more than 100%), a consequence of the benchmark empirical wind-based formulation disregarding significant factors that were included in the alternatives. We conclude that ESM requires more comprehensive simulations of atmosphere–ocean interactions, and that further calibration and validation is needed for the formulations to be able to reproduce it. We propose this framework as a basis to update with formulations for processes specific to the air–water boundary, such as the presence of surfactants, rain, the hydration reaction or biological activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: solubility; transfer velocity; Henry constant solubility; transfer velocity; Henry constant

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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    Description: Software, data and table related to this article are available online at The latest FuGas version and videos is available at

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Vieira, V.M.N.C.S.; Jurus, P.; Clementi, E.; Mateus, M. The FuGas 2.3 Framework for Atmosphere–Ocean Coupling: Comparing Algorithms for the Estimation of Solubilities and Gas Fluxes. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 310.

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