Next Article in Journal
Evaluation of Fog and Low Stratus Cloud Microphysical Properties Derived from In Situ Sensor, Cloud Radar and SYRSOC Algorithm
Previous Article in Journal
Climate Change Impacts on Natural Sulfur Production: Ocean Acidification and Community Shifts
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Atmosphere 2018, 9(5), 168;

Clouds over East Asia Observed with Collocated CloudSat and CALIPSO Measurements: Occurrence and Macrophysical Properties

Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Optics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China
Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
China Mobile Group Design Institute Co., Ltd., Beijing 100038, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 January 2018 / Revised: 30 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 April 2018 / Published: 2 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology and Meteorology)
Full-Text   |   PDF [5627 KB, uploaded 2 May 2018]   |  


Cloud occurrences, vertical structures, and along-track horizontal scales over East Asia are studied using four years (2007–2010) of CloudSat 2B-CLDCLASS-LIDAR data. The CloudSat 2B-CLDCLASS-LIDAR data employs combined CloudSat radar and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) measurements to provide by far the most accurate detections of cloud boundaries and their vertical structures. The mean cloud occurrence frequency over East Asia is 66.3%, which is 13.8% and 21.6% higher than that from the Cloud–Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) level 2 5-km cloud layer product and the CloudSat 2B-GEOPROF product, respectively. Cloud-top heights over East Asia show three local peaks at approximately 1.5 km, 10 km, and 15 km above ground level (AGL), indicating different mid-altitude cloud formation mechanisms from those over the tropics. Significant fractions of low-level cloud, mid-level cloud, and high-level cloud have thicknesses smaller than 0.5 km, indicating that models with vertical resolutions lower than 0.5 km have difficulties resolving those clouds. The average cloud along-track horizontal scale over East Asia is 82.0 km. Probability distribution functions (PDFs) of cloud along-track horizontal scales suggest that approximately 81.2% of the clouds over East Asia cannot be resolved by climate models with a grid resolution of 1°. The results from this study can be used to improve cloud parameterizations in climate models and validate model simulations of clouds over East Asia. View Full-Text
Keywords: cloud occurrence; cloud macrophysics; CALIPSO; CloudSat cloud occurrence; cloud macrophysics; CALIPSO; CloudSat

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Li, X.; Zheng, X.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, W.; Wang, F.; Deng, Y.; Zhu, W. Clouds over East Asia Observed with Collocated CloudSat and CALIPSO Measurements: Occurrence and Macrophysical Properties. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 168.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Atmosphere EISSN 2073-4433 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top