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Atmosphere 2018, 9(12), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9120483

Comparison of Simulated Tropical Cyclone Intensity and Structures Using the WRF with Hydrostatic and Nonhydrostatic Dynamical Cores

College of Meteorology and Oceanography, National University of Defense Technology, No. 60, Shuanglong Road, Nanjing 211101, China
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Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology and Meteorology)
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Abstract

This study explored the influence of choosing a nonhydrostatic dynamical core or a hydrostatic dynamical core in the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model on the intensity and structure of simulated tropical cyclones (TCs). A comparison of cloud-resolving simulations using each core revealed significant differences in the TC simulations. In comparison with the nonhydrostatic simulation, the hydrostatic simulation produced a stronger and larger TC, associated with stronger convective activity. A budget analysis of the vertical momentum equation was conducted to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Although the hydrostatic dynamical core was used, the vertical motion was not in strict hydrostatic balance because of the existence of the vertical perturbation pressure gradient force, local buoyancy force, water loading, and sum of the Coriolis and diffusion effects. The contribution of the enhanced vertical perturbation pressure gradient force was found to be more important for stronger upward acceleration in the eyewall in the hydrostatic simulation than in the nonhydrostatic simulation. This is because it leads to intensified convection in the eyewall that releases more latent heat, which induces a larger low-level radial pressure gradient and inflow motion, and eventually leads to a stronger storm. View Full-Text
Keywords: tropical cyclone; hydrostatic; WRF; vertical momentum budget; simulation tropical cyclone; hydrostatic; WRF; vertical momentum budget; simulation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Qi, F.; Fei, J.; Ma, Z.; Chen, J.; Huang, X.; Cheng, X. Comparison of Simulated Tropical Cyclone Intensity and Structures Using the WRF with Hydrostatic and Nonhydrostatic Dynamical Cores. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 483.

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