Next Article in Journal
Parameterization of Evapotranspiration Estimation for Two Typical East Asian Crops
Next Article in Special Issue
Numerical Investigation on the Effect of Avenue Trees on PM2.5 Dispersion in Urban Street Canyons
Previous Article in Journal
Estimating Cloud and Aerosol UV Modification Factors Based on Spectral Measurement from the Brewer Spectrophotometer
Previous Article in Special Issue
Variations of Carbon Monoxide Concentrations in the Megacity of São Paulo from 2000 to 2015 in Different Time Scales
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

The Spatiotemporal Distribution of Air Pollutants and Their Relationship with Land-Use Patterns in Hangzhou City, China

Department of Land Management, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Schmid College of Science and Technology, Chapman University, One University Drive, Orange, CA 92866, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2017, 8(6), 110;
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Air Pollution)
PDF [9415 KB, uploaded 20 June 2017]


Air pollution contributes to a large fraction of the total mortality estimated under the global burden of disease project (GBD) of the World Health Organization (WHO). This paper discusses an integrated study to obtain the spatiotemporal characteristics of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) and trace gases (O3, SO2, NO2, and CO) pollutants in Hangzhou City (China) for the years 2014–2016. Our detailed analysis shows a relationship between air pollutants and land-use/land-cover change. Air quality parameters (PM2.5 and PM10) and trace gases (SO2, NO2, and CO) show strong monthly variations in the months of January (higher values) and July (lower values). During monsoon and summer seasons, air quality and trace gases show low values, whereas ozone (O3) is higher in the summer and lower in the winter. The spatial distribution of air pollutants is retrieved using the kriging method at the monitoring sites in Hangzhou City. We have considered normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and land surface temperature (LST) from the Landsat 8 data. The correlation between air pollutants and land use at the street-town unit suggests that areas with low NDVI, high road density, large built-up density, and LST are consistent with high concentrations of particulate matter and SO2, NO2, and CO. Among the trace gases, NO2 is found to be the most sensitive element affected by land use patterns, and O3 shows weak correlation with land use. SO2 shows a strong positive correlation with road density and LST, whereas CO shows positive correlation with the built-up density, LST, and population density. View Full-Text
Keywords: trace gases; particulate matter; land use; Hangzhou (China) trace gases; particulate matter; land use; Hangzhou (China)

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zheng, S.; Zhou, X.; Singh, R.P.; Wu, Y.; Ye, Y.; Wu, C. The Spatiotemporal Distribution of Air Pollutants and Their Relationship with Land-Use Patterns in Hangzhou City, China. Atmosphere 2017, 8, 110.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Atmosphere EISSN 2073-4433 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top