Next Article in Journal
Optical Characterization of Fresh and Photochemically Aged Aerosols Emitted from Laboratory Siberian Peat Burning
Previous Article in Journal
Environmental Benefits of Ammonia Reduction in an Agriculture-Dominated Area in South Korea
Previous Article in Special Issue
A New PM Sampler with a Built-In Black Carbon Continuous Monitor
 
 
Article

Black Carbon Emissions and Associated Health Impacts of Gas Flaring in the United States

1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA
2
Clean Air Task Force, Boston, MA 02109, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pasquale Avino
Atmosphere 2022, 13(3), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13030385
Received: 31 January 2022 / Revised: 19 February 2022 / Accepted: 22 February 2022 / Published: 25 February 2022
Gas flaring from oil and gas fields is a significant source of black carbon (BC) emissions, a component of particulate matter that damages health and warms the climate. Observations from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) satellite instrument indicate that approximately 17.2 billion cubic meters (bcm) of gas was flared from upstream oil and gas operations in the United States in 2019. Based on an emissions factor equation that accounts for the higher heating value of the gas, that corresponded to nearly 16,000 tons of BC emitted, though estimates vary widely across published emissions factors. In this study, we used three reduced-form air quality and health effect models to estimate the health impacts from the flaring-emitted BC particulate matter in the United States. The three models—EASIUR, AP3, and InMAP—predict 26, 48, and 53 premature deaths, respectively, in 2019. The mortality range expands from 5 to 360 deaths annually if alternative emission factors are used. This study shows that reduced-form models can be useful to estimate the impacts of numerous dispersed emissions sources such as flares, and that further research is needed to better quantify BC emissions factors from flares. View Full-Text
Keywords: flaring; methane; reduced-form models; black carbon; particulate matter; emissions; oil and gas; mortality; morbidity; health flaring; methane; reduced-form models; black carbon; particulate matter; emissions; oil and gas; mortality; morbidity; health
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, C.; McCabe, D.C.; Fleischman, L.E.; Cohan, D.S. Black Carbon Emissions and Associated Health Impacts of Gas Flaring in the United States. Atmosphere 2022, 13, 385. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13030385

AMA Style

Chen C, McCabe DC, Fleischman LE, Cohan DS. Black Carbon Emissions and Associated Health Impacts of Gas Flaring in the United States. Atmosphere. 2022; 13(3):385. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13030385

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, Chen, David C. McCabe, Lesley E. Fleischman, and Daniel S. Cohan. 2022. "Black Carbon Emissions and Associated Health Impacts of Gas Flaring in the United States" Atmosphere 13, no. 3: 385. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13030385

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop