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Article

Eyjafjallajökull Volcanic Ash 2010 Effects on GPS Positioning Performance in the Adriatic Sea Region

1
Department of Electrical Engineering, National University of Science and Technology (NUST), Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
2
Laboratory for Spatial Intelligence, Krapina University of Applied Sciences, 49000 Krapina, Croatia
3
Department for Computer Science, Faculty of Engineering, University of Rijeka, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Thomas Smith and Michel Blanc
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010047
Received: 24 November 2021 / Revised: 19 December 2021 / Accepted: 22 December 2021 / Published: 28 December 2021
The Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash crisis in 2010 temporarily suspended European air traffic operations, as the 39-day eruption caused widely dispersed ashes to enter the lower atmosphere. In this paper, we assessed the effects of this event on the ionosphere layer and, consequently, on GPS positioning. We collected and analysed the data from four IGS stations, nearest to the volcano, for the month of April 2010. We recorded Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) time series, analysed their dynamics, and compared them with the GPS positioning errors of a commercial-grade, un-aided, single-frequency GPS receiver (simulating the response of a mass-market GPS receiver). The geomagnetic indices during the time period show little geomagnetic disturbance, especially during the volcanic event. Our results show an enhancement in ionosphere error by up to 15% during the volcanic ash event and an enhanced variance in GPS position components errors. This study reveals the potential impact of the charged volcanic ash on single-frequency, unaided GPS positioning accuracy in the Adriatic Sea region and establishes a foundation for studying similar events in future. View Full-Text
Keywords: GPS positioning performance; volcanic ash; ionosphere delay; aviation GPS positioning performance; volcanic ash; ionosphere delay; aviation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mehmood, M.; Saleem, S.; Filjar, R. Eyjafjallajökull Volcanic Ash 2010 Effects on GPS Positioning Performance in the Adriatic Sea Region. Atmosphere 2022, 13, 47. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010047

AMA Style

Mehmood M, Saleem S, Filjar R. Eyjafjallajökull Volcanic Ash 2010 Effects on GPS Positioning Performance in the Adriatic Sea Region. Atmosphere. 2022; 13(1):47. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010047

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mehmood, Maria, Sajid Saleem, and Renato Filjar. 2022. "Eyjafjallajökull Volcanic Ash 2010 Effects on GPS Positioning Performance in the Adriatic Sea Region" Atmosphere 13, no. 1: 47. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010047

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