Next Article in Journal
Air Pollution in New Delhi during Late Winter: An Overview of a Group of Campaign Studies Focusing on Composition and Sources
Next Article in Special Issue
Error Correction of Water Vapor Radiometers for VLBI Observations in Deep-Space Networks
Previous Article in Journal
Evaluation of Areal Monthly Average Precipitation Estimates from MERRA2 and ERA5 Reanalysis in a Colombian Caribbean Basin
Article

Long-Term Patterns and Trends of Shortwave Global Irradiance over the Euro-Mediterranean Region

National Observatory of Athens, Institute of Environmental Research and Sustainable Development, 15236 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yong Chen
Atmosphere 2021, 12(11), 1431; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12111431
Received: 13 September 2021 / Revised: 24 October 2021 / Accepted: 27 October 2021 / Published: 29 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation and Radiative Transfer in the Earth Atmosphere)
The spatiotemporal patterns and trends of shortwave global irradiance (SWGI) are a crucial factor affecting not only the climate but also sectors of the economy. In this work, the ERA5-Land reanalysis dataset is employed and evaluated against in situ measurements from a dense network of surface stations operated by the National Observatory of Athens over Greece, revealing a good agreement between the two datasets. Then, the spatiotemporal variability of SWGI is investigated over the Euro-Mediterranean region (10° W–42° E and 30° N–52° N) for a 40-year period (1981–2020). SWGI exhibits a smooth latitudinal variability from north to south of −5.4 W/m2/degree on an annual scale, while it varies significantly on a seasonal basis and is almost four times lower in the winter than in the summer. The SWGI trend during the analyzed period was found to be positive and statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. Spring and summer are the periods where positive and the strongest rates of SWGI trends are evident, while in the winter and autumn, negative or neutral trends were found. The increasing SWGI trend shows a slowdown during the beginning of the 2000s in all seasons, except autumn. The SWGI trend decreases by about −0.06 W/m2/decade every 100 m of elevation increase. View Full-Text
Keywords: surface solar radiation downward; ERA5-Land evaluation; solar radiation climatology; trend analysis; dimming; brightening; Greece; Europe surface solar radiation downward; ERA5-Land evaluation; solar radiation climatology; trend analysis; dimming; brightening; Greece; Europe
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Galanaki, E.; Emmanouil, G.; Lagouvardos, K.; Kotroni, V. Long-Term Patterns and Trends of Shortwave Global Irradiance over the Euro-Mediterranean Region. Atmosphere 2021, 12, 1431. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12111431

AMA Style

Galanaki E, Emmanouil G, Lagouvardos K, Kotroni V. Long-Term Patterns and Trends of Shortwave Global Irradiance over the Euro-Mediterranean Region. Atmosphere. 2021; 12(11):1431. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12111431

Chicago/Turabian Style

Galanaki, Elissavet, George Emmanouil, Konstantinos Lagouvardos, and Vassiliki Kotroni. 2021. "Long-Term Patterns and Trends of Shortwave Global Irradiance over the Euro-Mediterranean Region" Atmosphere 12, no. 11: 1431. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12111431

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop