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Rainfall Characteristics in the Mantaro Basin over Tropical Andes from a Vertically Pointed Profile Rain Radar and In-Situ Field Campaign

Instituto Geofísico del Perú, Lima 15012, Peru
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Atmosphere 2020, 11(3), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11030248
Received: 20 November 2019 / Revised: 20 January 2020 / Accepted: 14 February 2020 / Published: 2 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Meteorology)
Information on the vertical structure of rain, especially near the surface is important for accurate quantitative precipitation estimation from weather and space-borne radars. In the present study, the rainfall characteristics, from a vertically pointed profile Radar in the Mantaro basin (Huancayo, Peru) are observed. In summary, diurnal variation of near-surface rainfall and bright band height, average vertical profiles of the drop size distribution (DSD), rain rate, radar reflectivity (Ze) and liquid water content (LWC) are investigated to derive the rainfall characteristics. Diurnal variation of rain rate and bright band height show the bimodal distribution, where frequent and higher rain rate occurred during the afternoon and nighttime, and more than 70% bright band height found between 4.3–4.7 km. The average vertical profiles of Ze show the opposite characteristics above and below the melting level (ML) and depend on the near-surface rain rate. For example, the average Ze profiles have a negative gradient above the ML, whereas below, the ML, the gradient depends on the near-surface rain rate. The rain rate and LWC show the opposite behavior, and both consist of a positive (negative) gradient below (above) the ML. The vertical growth of DSD parameters depend on the near-surface rain rate, and a higher concentration of large-sized of droplets are observed for higher near surface rain rate, however, the dominant modes of droplets are <1 mm throughout the vertical column. However, the most significant variation in DSD growth is observed for near-surface rain rate ≥20 mm/h. These findings suggest using different retrieval techniques for near surface rain estimation than the rest of the vertical profile and high rain rate events. The improved understanding of the tropical Andes precipitation would be very important for assessing climate variability and to forecast the precipitation using the numerical models. View Full-Text
Keywords: MIRA35c; Diurnal variation; DSD parameters; convective rain and bright band MIRA35c; Diurnal variation; DSD parameters; convective rain and bright band
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Kumar, S.; Castillo-Velarde, C.D.; Valdivia Prado, J.M.; Flores Rojas, J.L.; Callañaupa Gutierrez, S.M.; Moya Alvarez, A.S.; Martine-Castro, D.; Silva, Y. Rainfall Characteristics in the Mantaro Basin over Tropical Andes from a Vertically Pointed Profile Rain Radar and In-Situ Field Campaign. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 248.

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