In ultrasonic equipment (anemometers and thermometers), for the measurement of parameters of atmospheric turbulence, a standard algorithm that calculates parameters from temporary structural functions constructed on the registered data is usually used. The algorithm is based on the Kolmogorov–Obukhov law. The experience of using ultrasonic meters shows that such an approach can lead to significant errors. Therefore, an improved algorithm for calculating the parameters is developed, which allows more accurate estimation of the structural characteristics of turbulent fluctuations, with an error that is not more than 10%. The algorithm was used in the development of a new ultrasonic hardware-software complex, autonomous meteorological complex AMK-03-4, which differs from similar measuring instruments of turbulent atmosphere parameters by the presence of four identical ultrasonic anemometers. The design of the complex allows not only registration of the characteristics of turbulence, but also measurement of the statistical characteristics of the spatial derivatives of turbulent temperature fluctuations and orthogonal components of wind speed along each of the axes of the Cartesian coordinate system. This makes it possible to investigate the space–time structure of turbulent meteorological fields of the surface layer of the atmosphere for subsequent applications in the Monin–Obukhov similarity theory and to study turbulent coherent structures. The new measurement data of the spatial derivatives of temperature at stable stratification (at positive Monin–Obukhov parameters) were obtained, at which the behavior of the derivatives was been investigated earlier. In the most part of the interval of positive Monin–Obukhov parameters, the vertical derivative of the temperature is close to a constant value. This fact can be considered as a new significant result in similarity theory.
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