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Open AccessArticle

IonoSeis: A Package to Model Coseismic Ionospheric Disturbances

1
Environmental Seismology Laboratory, Department of Geosciences, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725, USA
2
Institut de recherche pour le Développement, Géoazur, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Université Côte d’Azur, Sophia Anitpolis, 06560 Valbonne, France
3
Engineer Research and Development Center, US Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS 39180, USA
4
Institut de physique du globe de Paris, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université de Paris, F-75005 Paris, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Previously at Environmental Seismology Laboratory, Department of Geosciences, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725, USA.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(8), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10080443
Received: 4 June 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 27 July 2019 / Published: 1 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithosphere–Atmosphere–Ionosphere Coupling (LAIC) Models)
We present the framework of the modeling package IonoSeis. This software models Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) derived slant total electron content (sTEC) perturbations in the ionosphere due to the interaction of the neutral atmosphere and charged particles in the ionosphere. We use a simplified model to couple the neutral particle momentum into the ionosphere and reconstruct time series of sTEC perturbations that match observed data in both arrival time and perturbation shape. We propagate neutral atmosphere disturbances to ionospheric heights using a three-dimensional ray-tracing code in spherical coordinates called Windy Atmospheric Sonic Propagation (WASP3D), which works for a stationary or non-stationary atmospheric models. The source of the atmosphere perturbation can be an earthquake or volcanic eruption; both couple significant amounts of energy into the atmosphere in the frequency range of a few Millihertz. We demonstrate the output of the code by comparing modeled sTEC perturbation data to the observed perturbation recorded at GNSS station BTNG (Bitung, Indonesia) immediately following the 28 September 2018, Sulawesi-Palu earthquake. With this framework, we provide a software to couple the lithosphere, atmosphere, and ionosphere that can be used to study post-seismic ionospherically-derived signals. View Full-Text
Keywords: total electron content; coseismic ionospheric disturbance; earthquake observation total electron content; coseismic ionospheric disturbance; earthquake observation
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Mikesell, T.D.; Rolland, L.M.; Lee, R.F.; Zedek, F.; Coïsson, P.; Dessa, J.-X. IonoSeis: A Package to Model Coseismic Ionospheric Disturbances. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 443.

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