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Open AccessArticle

A Comparison of North American Surface Temperature and Temperature Extreme Anomalies in Association with Various Atmospheric Teleconnection Patterns

by Bin Yu 1,*, Hai Lin 2 and Nicholas Soulard 3
1
Climate Research Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Toronto, ON M3H5T4, Canada
2
Meteorological Research Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Dorval, QC H9P1J3, Canada
3
Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A0G4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(4), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10040172
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 28 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
The atmospheric teleconnection pattern reflects large-scale variations in the atmospheric wave and jet stream, and has pronounced impacts on climate mean and extremes over various regions. This study compares those patterns that have significant circulation anomalies over the North Pacific–North American–North Atlantic sector, which directly influence surface temperature and temperature extremes over North America. We analyze the pattern associated anomalies of surface temperature and warm and cold extremes over North America, during the northern winter and summer seasons. In particular, we assess the robustness of the regional temperature and temperature extreme anomaly patterns by evaluating the field significance of these anomalies over North America, and quantify the percentages of North American temperature and temperature extreme variances explained by these patterns. The surface temperature anomalies in association with the Pacific–North American pattern (PNA), Tropical–Northern Hemisphere pattern (TNH), North Pacific pattern (NP), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Arctic Oscillation (AO), Western Pacific pattern (WP), circumglobal teleconnection (CGT), and Asian–Bering–North American (ABNA) patterns are similar to those reported in previous studies based on various datasets, indicating the robustness of the results. During winter, the temperature anomaly patterns considered are field significant at the 5% level over North America, except the WP-related one. These pattern associated anomalies explained about 5–15% of the total interannual temperature variance over North America, with relatively high percentages for the ABNA and PNA patterns, and low for the WP pattern. The pattern associated warm and cold extreme anomalies resemble the corresponding surface mean temperature anomaly patterns, with differences mainly in magnitude of the anomalies. Most of the anomalous extreme patterns are field significant at the 5% level, except the WP-related patterns. These extreme anomalies explain about 5–20% of the total interannual variance over North America. During summer, the pattern-related circulation and surface temperature anomalies are weaker than those in winter. Nevertheless, all of the pattern associated temperature anomalies are of field significance at the 5% level over North America, except the PNA-related one, and explain about 5–10% of the interannual variance. In addition, the temperature extreme anomalies, in association with the circulation patterns, are comparable in summer and winter. Over North America, the NP-, WP-, ABNA-, and CGT-associated anomalies of warm extremes are field significant at the 5% level and explain about 5–15% of the interannual variance. Most of the pattern associated cold extreme anomalies are field significant at the 5% level, except the PNA and NAO related anomalies, and also explain about 5–15% of the interannual variance over North America. View Full-Text
Keywords: atmospheric teleconnection pattern; pattern impact; temperature; temperature extremes; North America atmospheric teleconnection pattern; pattern impact; temperature; temperature extremes; North America
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Yu, B.; Lin, H.; Soulard, N. A Comparison of North American Surface Temperature and Temperature Extreme Anomalies in Association with Various Atmospheric Teleconnection Patterns. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 172.

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