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Center for Climate Physics, Institute for Basic Science, Busan 46241, Korea
Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea
Research Center for Climate Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea
Atmosphere 2019, 10(3), 147;
Submission received: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 14 March 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monsoons)
Monsoon climates affect the daily lives of two-thirds of the world population. Monsoon precipitation is a key element in global water and energy cycles and a major driver for atmospheric general circulation. Therefore, monsoon prediction is the most challenging problem in climate science. Moreover, a number of studies in recent years have drawn attention to the increasing intensity of heavy rainfall events, heat waves, and severe droughts in monsoon regions. It is imperative that scientists who study monsoon circulations improve the prediction of their start date or onset, the monsoon intensity, and how these variables respond to climate change. However, changes in the regional monsoons cannot be fully understood unless we get them together in a climate system perspective. Therefore, more detailed studies have been needed to establish that how the regional monsoons are linked, and how their variabilities are demonstrated, and how the observed increases in extreme events are indeed due to climate change by human action and not part of natural variability.
The present issue aims to advance our understanding and provide reliable analysis and prediction for the regional monsoons and their changes in various time scales from the past to the future. We invited authors to submit original and review articles that aim to study the monsoons and their variability including extremes, such as drought, dry spell, flooding, heat waves, and so on, in monsoon areas. The 16 papers in this volume cover several regional monsoons including East Asia, South Asia and the South China Sea, Australian monsoon, and African Monsoon. In this Special Issue, Chen et al. [1], Olaguera et al. [2], Olaguera et al. [3], and Lin and Wang [4] demonstrate the important themes on changes in monsoons such as regional monsoons’ decadal, multidecadal variabilities and abrupt change, Lau et al. [5], Kim et al. [6], Wu et al. [7], Ding et al. [8], and Wang et al. [9] have investigated physical processes responsible for monsoon extremes and changes. In addition, Diba et al. [10], Yang et al. [11], Li et al. [12], Shin et al. [13], Heo et al. [14], and Chen et al. [15] have performed prediction and projection studies of future monsoons, monsoon simulations and how monsoons will respond to climate change. Especially Islam et al. [16] showed that oceanic processes such as those forced ENSO or those in the Indian Ocean impacted the 2015 monsoon season. Lastly, the Guest Editor of this issue is grateful to all authors, reviewers, and the editorial office of MDPI.


This study was supported by the Institute for Basic Science (project code IBS-R028-D1). I would like to express my sincere thanks to all of authors, reviewers, and assistant editors for their effort to this special issue.


  1. Chen, W.-T.; Huang, K.-T.; Lo, M.-H.; LinHo, L.H. Post-Monsoon Season Precipitation Reduction over South Asia: Impacts of Anthropogenic Aerosols and Irrigation. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 311. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  2. Olaguera, L.M.; Matsumoto, J.; Kubota, H.; Inoue, T.; Cayanan, E.O.; Hilario, F.D. Abrupt Climate Shift in the Mature Rainy Season of the Philippines in the Mid-1990s. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 350. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  3. Olaguera, L.M.; Matsumoto, J.; Kubota, H.; Inoue, T.; Cayanan, E.O.; Hilario, F.D. Interdecadal Shifts in the Winter Monsoon Rainfall of the Philippines. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 464. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  4. Lin, Y.-H.; Wang, S.-Y.S. Multidecadal Variability in the Subseasonal Peak of Low-Level Convergence over the Pacific Warm Pool. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 158. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  5. Lau, W.K.M.; Kim, K.-M. Impact of Snow Darkening by Deposition of Light-Absorbing Aerosols on Snow Cover in the Himalayas–Tibetan Plateau and Influence on the Asian Summer Monsoon: A Possible Mechanism for the Blanford Hypothesis. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 438. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  6. Kim, S.; Ha, K.-J.; Ding, R.; Li, J. Re-Examination of the Decadal Change in the Relationship between the East Asian Summer Monsoon and Indian Ocean SST. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 395. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  7. Wu, C.-H.; Huang, W.-R.; Wang, S.-Y.S. Role of Indochina Peninsula Topography in Precipitation Seasonality over East Asia. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 255. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  8. Ding, R.; Li, J.; Tseng, Y.-H.; Li, L.; Sun, C.; Xie, F. Influences of the North Pacific Victoria Mode on the South China Sea Summer Monsoon. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 229. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
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  10. Diba, I.; Camara, M.; Diedhiou, A. Investigating West African Monsoon Features in Warm Years Using the Regional Climate Model RegCM4. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 23. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  11. Yang, Y.-M.; Wang, B.; Li, J. Improving Seasonal Prediction of East Asian Summer Rainfall Using NESM3.0: Preliminary Results. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 487. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  12. Li, J.; Yang, Y.-M.; Wang, B. Evaluation of NESMv3 and CMIP5 Models’ Performance on Simulation of Asian-Australian Monsoon. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 327. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  13. Shin, S.-H.; Moon, J.-Y. Prediction Skill for the East Asian Winter Monsoon Based on APCC Multi-Models. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 300. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  14. Heo, J.-W.; Ho, C.-H.; Park, T.-W.; Choi, W.; Jeong, J.-H.; Kim, J. Changes in Cold Surge Occurrence over East Asia in the Future: Role of Thermal Structure. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 222. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  15. Chen, X.; Liu, X.; Li, X.; Liu, M.; Yang, M. Activity Characteristics of the East Asian Trough in CMIP5 Models. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 67. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  16. Islam, M.A.; Chan, A.; Ashfold, M.J.; Ooi, C.G.; Azari, M. Effects of El-Niño, Indian Ocean Dipole, and Madden-Julian Oscillation on Surface Air Temperature and Rainfall Anomalies over Southeast Asia in 2015. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 352. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

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Ha, K.-J. Monsoons. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 147.

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Ha K-J. Monsoons. Atmosphere. 2019; 10(3):147.

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Ha, Kyung-Ja. 2019. "Monsoons" Atmosphere 10, no. 3: 147.

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