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Characterization of Human Health Risks from Particulate Air Pollution in Selected European Cities

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School of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania, Greece
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National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Department of Environmental Health, 70210 Kuopio, Finland
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University of Eastern Finland (UEF), Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Pharmacy, 70210 Kuopio, Finland
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Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, Km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS, Portugal
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Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, Environmental Radioactivity Lab, N.C.S.R. “Demokritos”, Agia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020096
Received: 24 January 2019 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 21 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Aerosols)
The objective of the current study was to estimate health risk indexes caused by the inhalation of particulate matter (PM) by adult males and children using data sampled in three European cities (Athens, Kuopio, Lisbon). Accordingly, the cancer risk (CR) and the hazard quotient (HQ) were estimated from particle-bound metal concentrations whilst the epidemiology-based excess risk (ER), the attributable fraction (AF), and the mortality cases were obtained due to exposure to PM10 and PM2.5. CR and HQ were estimated using two methodologies: the first methodology incorporated the particle-bound metal concentrations (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb) whereas the second methodology used the deposited dose rate of particle-bound metals in the respiratory tract. The indoor concentration accounts for 70% infiltration from outdoor air for the time activity periods allocated to indoor environments. HQ was lower than 1 and the cumulative CR was lower than the acceptable level (10−4), although individual CR for some metals exceeded the acceptable limit (10−6). In a lifetime the estimated number of attributable cancer cases was 74, 0.107, and 217 in Athens, Kuopio, and Lisbon, respectively. Excess risk-based mortality estimates (due to outdoor pollution) for fine particles were 3930, 44.1, and 2820 attributable deaths in Athens, Kuopio, and Lisbon, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: particulate matter; health risks; dose; respiratory tract; metals; cancer risk; mortality particulate matter; health risks; dose; respiratory tract; metals; cancer risk; mortality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chalvatzaki, E.; Chatoutsidou, S.E.; Lehtomäki, H.; Almeida, S.M.; Eleftheriadis, K.; Hänninen, O.; Lazaridis, M. Characterization of Human Health Risks from Particulate Air Pollution in Selected European Cities. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 96. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020096

AMA Style

Chalvatzaki E, Chatoutsidou SE, Lehtomäki H, Almeida SM, Eleftheriadis K, Hänninen O, Lazaridis M. Characterization of Human Health Risks from Particulate Air Pollution in Selected European Cities. Atmosphere. 2019; 10(2):96. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020096

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chalvatzaki, Eleftheria, Sofia E. Chatoutsidou, Heli Lehtomäki, Susana M. Almeida, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Otto Hänninen, and Mihalis Lazaridis. 2019. "Characterization of Human Health Risks from Particulate Air Pollution in Selected European Cities" Atmosphere 10, no. 2: 96. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020096

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