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Open AccessArticle

Characteristics and Formation Mechanisms of Spring SST Anomalies in the South China Sea and Its Adjacent Regions

by Wenjuan Gao 1, Song Yang 2,3,4, Xiaoming Hu 2,3,4,*, Wei Wei 2,3,4 and Yanglin Xiao 1
1
China Meteorological Administration Training Centre Hunan Branch, Changsha 410125, China
2
School of Atmospheric Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
3
Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Climate Change and Natural Disaster Studies, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
4
Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai), Zhuhai 519000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(11), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10110649
Received: 31 July 2019 / Revised: 20 October 2019 / Accepted: 23 October 2019 / Published: 26 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Meteorology)
Characteristics of the springtime sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) in the South China Sea and its adjacent regions (SCSAR), as well as their possible impacts on the Asian and Indo-Pacific climate, were investigated by using multiple datasets. According to the result from an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis on the spring SSTAs in the SCSAR, the dominant pattern is a uniformly warming pattern in the whole SCSAR region. While the second mode is a sandwich pattern with cold SSTA over the central SCSAR centered near 10° N, flanked by warm SSTA over the northern oceans near 25° N and in the subtropics near 10° S. The uniformly warming pattern is associated with the anomalous warming in the Indian Ocean from the preceding autumn to the spring, and the sandwich pattern is mainly caused by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. In the uniformly warming pattern, rainfall increases in the Meiyu region and decreases over the southern South China Sea (SCS). In the sandwich pattern, the anomalous anticyclone at 850-hPa causes less rainfall in the Philippine Sea, the Marine Continent, and the SCS. The positive rainfall anomalies could be found in the northern SCS and adjacent regions. Associated with the second EOF mode, there is a wave train emitted from the SCSAR to East Asia, northwest Pacific, and North America. The wave train spreads the energy from mid-latitudes to higher latitudes through atmospheric teleconnection, which can even influence the North American atmospheric circulation in spring. View Full-Text
Keywords: South China Sea and surrounding areas; spring SSTAs; interannual variability; climate effect South China Sea and surrounding areas; spring SSTAs; interannual variability; climate effect
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Gao, W.; Yang, S.; Hu, X.; Wei, W.; Xiao, Y. Characteristics and Formation Mechanisms of Spring SST Anomalies in the South China Sea and Its Adjacent Regions. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 649.

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