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Disease Resistance Mechanisms in Plants

1
Department of Biology and Microbiology, South Dakota State University, Brookings, 57007 SD, USA
2
Department of Agronomy, Horticulture, and Plant Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, 57007 SD, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2018, 9(7), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9070339
Received: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics and Genomics)
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Abstract

Plants have developed a complex defense system against diverse pests and pathogens. Once pathogens overcome mechanical barriers to infection, plant receptors initiate signaling pathways driving the expression of defense response genes. Plant immune systems rely on their ability to recognize enemy molecules, carry out signal transduction, and respond defensively through pathways involving many genes and their products. Pathogens actively attempt to evade and interfere with response pathways, selecting for a decentralized, multicomponent immune system. Recent advances in molecular techniques have greatly expanded our understanding of plant immunity, largely driven by potential application to agricultural systems. Here, we review the major plant immune system components, state of the art knowledge, and future direction of research on plant–pathogen interactions. In our review, we will discuss how the decentralization of plant immune systems have provided both increased evolutionary opportunity for pathogen resistance, as well as additional mechanisms for pathogen inhibition of such defense responses. We conclude that the rapid advances in bioinformatics and molecular biology are driving an explosion of information that will advance agricultural production and illustrate how complex molecular interactions evolve. View Full-Text
Keywords: coevolution; defense response; disease resistance; nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat; plant immunity; plant-pest interaction; pathogenesis; pattern recognition receptor; phytopathology; resistance gene coevolution; defense response; disease resistance; nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat; plant immunity; plant-pest interaction; pathogenesis; pattern recognition receptor; phytopathology; resistance gene
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Andersen, E.J.; Ali, S.; Byamukama, E.; Yen, Y.; Nepal, M.P. Disease Resistance Mechanisms in Plants. Genes 2018, 9, 339.

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