Next Article in Journal
Dystrophic Cardiomyopathy—Potential Role of Calcium in Pathogenesis, Treatment and Novel Therapies
Previous Article in Journal
Modeling and Targeting MYC Genes in Childhood Brain Tumors
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Differences in the Bacteriome of Smokeless Tobacco Products with Different Oral Carcinogenicity: Compositional and Predicted Functional Analysis

Department of Maxillofacial Surgery and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, 45142 Jazan, Saudi Arabia
Kornberg School of Dentistry, Temple University, 3223 N Board Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, 45142 Jazan, Saudi Arabia
Department of Microbiology, Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thierry Wirth
Genes 2017, 8(4), 106;
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 17 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 March 2017 / Published: 23 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Genetics and Genomics)
PDF [4613 KB, uploaded 23 March 2017]


Smokeless tobacco (ST) products vary significantly in their oral carcinogenicity. Much is known about the differences in the chemical, but not the bacterial, constituents of these products. In this study, we explored the composition and function of the bacteriome in ST products from four countries using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and 16S rRNA-based next generation sequencing. The bacterial load (16S rRNA copies/gram) was lowest in Swedish snus (3.4 × 106) and highest in Yemeni shammah (6.6 × 1011). A total of 491 species-level taxa, many of which are potentially novel, belonging to 178 genera and 11 phyla were identified. Species richness and diversity were highest for Swedish snus and lowest for Yemeni shammah. Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Oceanobacillus spp. were the most abundant in American snuff; species of Pseudomonas, Massilia, Propionibacterium, Puniceispirillum, and Gloeothece predominated in Swedish snus. In Sudanese toombak, Facklamia, Desemzia, Atopostipes, and Lysinibacillus spp. accounted for the majority of the bacteriome. Yemeni shammah exclusively contained Bacillus spp. Functional prediction by phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) showed that genes encoding cadmium/zinc and nickel transport systems were enriched in the presumptively “high carcinogenicity” products. The bacteriome of ST products thus differed qualitatively, quantitatively, and functionally. The relevance of these differences, particularly with respect to nickel and cadmium, to oral carcinogenesis warrants further investigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacteria; bacteriome; carcinoma; microbiome; mouth; smokeless; snuff; tobacco bacteria; bacteriome; carcinoma; microbiome; mouth; smokeless; snuff; tobacco

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Al-hebshi, N.N.; Alharbi, F.A.; Mahri, M.; Chen, T. Differences in the Bacteriome of Smokeless Tobacco Products with Different Oral Carcinogenicity: Compositional and Predicted Functional Analysis. Genes 2017, 8, 106.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Genes EISSN 2073-4425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top