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Genes 2017, 8(2), 62;

Elaborated Action of the Human Primosome

Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases, Fred & Pamela Buffett Cancer Center, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 4 February 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Replication Controls)
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The human primosome is a 340-kilodalton complex of primase (DNA-dependent RNA polymerase) and DNA polymerase α, which initiates genome replication by synthesizing chimeric RNA-DNA primers for DNA polymerases δ and ϵ. Accumulated biochemical and structural data reveal the complex mechanism of concerted primer synthesis by two catalytic centers. First, primase generates an RNA primer through three steps: initiation, consisting of dinucleotide synthesis from two nucleotide triphosphates; elongation, resulting in dinucleotide extension; and termination, owing to primase inhibition by a mature 9-mer primer. Then Polα, which works equally well on DNA:RNA and DNA:DNA double helices, intramolecularly catches the template primed by a 9mer RNA and extends the primer with dNTPs. All primosome transactions are highly coordinated by autoregulation through the alternating activation/inhibition of the catalytic centers. This coordination is mediated by the small C-terminal domain of the primase accessory subunit, which forms a tight complex with the template:primer, shuttles between the primase and DNA polymerase active sites, and determines their access to the substrate. View Full-Text
Keywords: DNA replication; human; primosome; primase; DNA polymerase α; protein-DNA interaction; RNA synthesis; initiation; termination; steric hindrance DNA replication; human; primosome; primase; DNA polymerase α; protein-DNA interaction; RNA synthesis; initiation; termination; steric hindrance

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Baranovskiy, A.G.; Tahirov, T.H. Elaborated Action of the Human Primosome. Genes 2017, 8, 62.

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