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Genes 2016, 7(11), 101;

Endocrine Dysfunction in Female FMR1 Premutation Carriers: Characteristics and Association with Ill Health

The Patrick Wild Centre, The University of Edinburgh, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, Edinburgh EH10 5HF, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mark Hirst
Received: 13 September 2016 / Revised: 28 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fragile X Syndrome)
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Female FMR1 premutation carriers (PMC) have been suggested to be at greater risk of ill health, in particular endocrine dysfunction, compared to the general population. We set out to review the literature relating to endocrine dysfunction, including premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), in female PMCs, and then to consider whether endocrine dysfunction in itself may be predictive of other illnesses in female PMCs. A systematic review and pilot data from a semi-structured health questionnaire were used. Medline, Embase, and PsycInfo were searched for papers concerning PMCs and endocrine dysfunction. For the pilot study, self-reported diagnoses in females were compared between PMCs with endocrine dysfunction (n = 18), PMCs without endocrine dysfunction (n = 14), and individuals without the premutation (n = 15). Twenty-nine papers were identified in the review; the majority concerned POI and reduced fertility, which are consistently found to be more common in PMCs than controls. There was some evidence that thyroid dysfunction may occur more frequently in subgroups of PMCs and that those with endocrine difficulties have poorer health than those without. In the pilot study, PMCs with endocrine problems reported higher levels of fibromyalgia (p = 0.03), tremor (p = 0.03), headache (p = 0.01) and obsessive–compulsive disorder (p = 0.009) than either comparison group. Further larger scale research is warranted to determine whether female PMCs are at risk of endocrine disorders other than those associated with reproduction and whether endocrine dysfunction identifies a high-risk group for the presence of other health conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: fragile X; premutation; endocrine; health; premature ovarian insufficiency fragile X; premutation; endocrine; health; premature ovarian insufficiency

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Campbell, S.; Eley, S.E.A.; McKechanie, A.G.; Stanfield, A.C. Endocrine Dysfunction in Female FMR1 Premutation Carriers: Characteristics and Association with Ill Health. Genes 2016, 7, 101.

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