# Assessing the Forensic Value of DNA Evidence from Y Chromosomes and Mitogenomes

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## Abstract

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## 1. Weight of Evidence for Lineage Marker Profiles

#### 1.1. The Effect of Relatedness and Mutation Rate on the LR

#### 1.2. The Role of Databases in Evidence Evaluation

#### 1.3. The Probability of Matching Profiles

## 2. Review of Evaluation Methods

#### 2.1. Adjusted Database Counts

#### 2.1.1. Adjustment Based on the Database Frequency Spectrum

#### 2.1.2. Augmenting the Database

#### 2.1.3. Upper Confidence Limit (UCL)

#### 2.2. The Discrete Laplace Method

#### 2.3. Coancestry Adjustment for Population Substructure

#### 2.4. Estimating the Number of Matches in the Population

#### 2.5. Methods Not Widely Used

#### 2.5.1. Population Genetic Modelling Using the Coalescent

#### 2.5.2. Frequency Surveying

#### 2.5.3. Graphical Statistical Models

## 3. Recommendations from Forensic Authorities

#### 3.1. Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (USA, Canada)

#### 3.1.1. Y Profiles

#### 3.1.2. mtDNA

#### 3.2. International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG)

#### 3.2.1. Y Profiles

#### 3.2.2. mtDNA

## 4. Some Further Issues

#### 4.1. Combination with Autosomal Evidence

#### 4.2. Locus Order for Duplicated Y Loci

#### 4.3. Consistency

#### 4.4. Partial Profiles

#### 4.5. Mixtures

## 5. Discussion

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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Andersen, M.M.; Balding, D.J. Assessing the Forensic Value of DNA Evidence from Y Chromosomes and Mitogenomes. *Genes* **2021**, *12*, 1209.
https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12081209

**AMA Style**

Andersen MM, Balding DJ. Assessing the Forensic Value of DNA Evidence from Y Chromosomes and Mitogenomes. *Genes*. 2021; 12(8):1209.
https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12081209

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Andersen, Mikkel M., and David J. Balding. 2021. "Assessing the Forensic Value of DNA Evidence from Y Chromosomes and Mitogenomes" *Genes* 12, no. 8: 1209.
https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12081209