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An I for an A: Dynamic Regulation of Adenosine Deamination-Mediated RNA Editing

Division of Cell & Developmental Biology, Center for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna, Schwarzspanierstrasse 17, A-1090 Vienna, Austria
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Academic Editors: Pierre Barraud, Carine Tisne and Stefanie Kellner
Genes 2021, 12(7), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12071026
Received: 12 June 2021 / Revised: 28 June 2021 / Accepted: 30 June 2021 / Published: 1 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functions and Dynamics of RNA Modifications)
RNA-editing by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) converts adenosines to inosines in structured RNAs. Inosines are read as guanosines by most cellular machineries. A to I editing has two major functions: first, marking endogenous RNAs as “self”, therefore helping the innate immune system to distinguish repeat- and endogenous retrovirus-derived RNAs from invading pathogenic RNAs; and second, recoding the information of the coding RNAs, leading to the translation of proteins that differ from their genomically encoded versions. It is obvious that these two important biological functions of ADARs will differ during development, in different tissues, upon altered physiological conditions or after exposure to pathogens. Indeed, different levels of ADAR-mediated editing have been observed in different tissues, as a response to altered physiology or upon pathogen exposure. In this review, we describe the dynamics of A to I editing and summarize the known and likely mechanisms that will lead to global but also substrate-specific regulation of A to I editing. View Full-Text
Keywords: RNA modification; ADAR; regulation; RNA processing; adenosine deamination RNA modification; ADAR; regulation; RNA processing; adenosine deamination
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vesely, C.; Jantsch, M.F. An I for an A: Dynamic Regulation of Adenosine Deamination-Mediated RNA Editing. Genes 2021, 12, 1026. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12071026

AMA Style

Vesely C, Jantsch MF. An I for an A: Dynamic Regulation of Adenosine Deamination-Mediated RNA Editing. Genes. 2021; 12(7):1026. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12071026

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vesely, Cornelia, and Michael F. Jantsch 2021. "An I for an A: Dynamic Regulation of Adenosine Deamination-Mediated RNA Editing" Genes 12, no. 7: 1026. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12071026

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