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Article

Amplified Fragments of an Autosome-Borne Gene Constitute a Significant Component of the W Sex Chromosome of Eremias velox (Reptilia, Lacertidae)

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Institute of Environmental and Agricultural Biology (X-BIO), University of Tyumen, Lenina str. 23, 625003 Tyumen, Russia
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Institute of Cytology and Genetics SB RAS, Acad. Lavrentiev Ave. 10, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
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Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology SB RAS, Acad. Lavrentiev Ave. 8/2, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
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Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, Saint Petersburg State University, Universitetskaya Emb. 7–9, 199034 Saint Petersburg, Russia
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Department of Human and Animal Anatomy and Physiology, Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Moyka Emb. 48, 191186 Saint Petersburg, Russia
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Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova str. 3, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mario Ventura
Genes 2021, 12(5), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12050779
Received: 2 April 2021 / Revised: 11 May 2021 / Accepted: 17 May 2021 / Published: 20 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromosome-Centric View of the Genome Organization and Evolution)
Heteromorphic W and Y sex chromosomes often experience gene loss and heterochromatinization, which is frequently viewed as their “degeneration”. However, the evolutionary trajectories of the heterochromosomes are in fact more complex since they may not only lose but also acquire new sequences. Previously, we found that the heterochromatic W chromosome of a lizard Eremias velox (Lacertidae) is decondensed and thus transcriptionally active during the lampbrush stage. To determine possible sources of this transcription, we sequenced DNA from a microdissected W chromosome sample and a total female DNA sample and analyzed the results of reference-based and de novo assembly. We found a new repetitive sequence, consisting of fragments of an autosomal protein-coding gene ATF7IP2, several SINE elements, and sequences of unknown origin. This repetitive element is distributed across the whole length of the W chromosome, except the centromeric region. Since it retained only 3 out of 10 original ATF7IP2 exons, it remains unclear whether it is able to produce a protein product. Subsequent studies are required to test the presence of this element in other species of Lacertidae and possible functionality. Our results provide further evidence for the view of W and Y chromosomes as not just “degraded” copies of Z and X chromosomes but independent genomic segments in which novel genetic elements may arise. View Full-Text
Keywords: sex chromosomes; heterochromatin; ATF7IP2; repetitive DNA; lizards sex chromosomes; heterochromatin; ATF7IP2; repetitive DNA; lizards
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lisachov, A.; Andreyushkova, D.; Davletshina, G.; Prokopov, D.; Romanenko, S.; Galkina, S.; Saifitdinova, A.; Simonov, E.; Borodin, P.; Trifonov, V. Amplified Fragments of an Autosome-Borne Gene Constitute a Significant Component of the W Sex Chromosome of Eremias velox (Reptilia, Lacertidae). Genes 2021, 12, 779. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12050779

AMA Style

Lisachov A, Andreyushkova D, Davletshina G, Prokopov D, Romanenko S, Galkina S, Saifitdinova A, Simonov E, Borodin P, Trifonov V. Amplified Fragments of an Autosome-Borne Gene Constitute a Significant Component of the W Sex Chromosome of Eremias velox (Reptilia, Lacertidae). Genes. 2021; 12(5):779. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12050779

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lisachov, Artem, Daria Andreyushkova, Guzel Davletshina, Dmitry Prokopov, Svetlana Romanenko, Svetlana Galkina, Alsu Saifitdinova, Evgeniy Simonov, Pavel Borodin, and Vladimir Trifonov. 2021. "Amplified Fragments of an Autosome-Borne Gene Constitute a Significant Component of the W Sex Chromosome of Eremias velox (Reptilia, Lacertidae)" Genes 12, no. 5: 779. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12050779

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